3d Printing Dental Implant
The research was for developing a three-dimensional slurry printingsystem(3DSP) and using a two-stage sintering process in the fabrication of zirconia dental implants. The rigid green part was obtained. The rigid green part was heated using two staged sintering process to 600 C for forming binder burnout and 1540 C to sinter the zirconia dental implant part. The results reflected that the sintered parts had average flexural strength and micro-hardness of 529.1 Mpa and 1556 Hv. Using 3DSP, it was successful to make zirconia dental implant.
This research reflected that the production of a biological tooth root has been successfully tested in big animal models and it is very likely that the same strategy can be applied soon to humans. So, it is possible that dental implantology in the near future becomes a discipline without metal-based dental implants. Sophisticated engineered biomaterials for example will direct the differentiation of dental stem cells such as DFCs into cells of the tooth attachment apparatus. These biomaterials can be printed in a 3D printer according to the requirements of the regenerated tissue. For the directed differentiation of stem cells, growth factors etc. will be combined with 3D printed scaffolds.
This review tells that the fabrication of medical implants and prostheses and biological models have three distinct characteristics: low volume, complex shapes and they are highly customized. These characteristics make them suitable to be made by RM technologies even on a commercial scale. This paper reviews RP/RM fundamentals and applications in medicine and dentistry. The biocompatibility of titanium, titanium alloy, and other materials such as cobalt-chromium and certain polymers has been discussed. Titanium and its alloys are the most common biocompatible materials that are used thanks to their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, and low density.
RP technique was then utilized to obtain a real 3D model for pre-operation planning, surgical guide fabrication, and surgery simulation. The mandible model helped to drill holes on the traditional surgical guide by a 5-axis CNC drill press and it also drilled into the mandible model. Besides, the dentist simulated the drilling process in the dental implant surgery on the mandible model. Both drilled RP mandible models were CT-scanned and compared with the designed implant locations and angles. The errors are within acceptable region. Our approach has been successfully demonstrated in dental implant’s pre-operation planning and simulation, which will help to increase the successful rate and safety of dental implant surgery
In this paper, a patient with mal-positioned mandible was initially selected. Through an intra-oralscanner,the3D STL model of the patient’s denture was created. After that, a computer-aided virtual orthodontic treatment was planned. After planning, 8 steps were respectively fabricated by CNC milling machine and 3D printer. These models were digitized via a scanner and then compared with the original data from the virtual planning of orthodontic treatment. In the experiment, it is found that the smoothness and repeatability for CNC machining is betterthanfor3D printing, especially for inclined and curved surfaces such as occlusal surfaces. However, the 3D printer could produce concave and intricate geometry that is often not achievable by milling.
As a result, 56 articles remained and were fully analyzed in this systematic review. The results obtained in this systematic review open new avenues to perform bone tissue engineering for patients with bone defects and emphasize the importance of using human dental pulp stem cells and SHED to repair actual bone defects in an appropriate animal model.
As final sintering temperature increased, the compressive behaviour developed from being elastic–brittle to elastic–plastic and while Young’s modulus remained fairly constant in the region of 1.5 GPa, there was a corresponding increase in 0.2% proof stress of approximately 40–80 MPa. The cellular solid model consists of two equations that predict Young’s modulus and yield or proof stress. By fitting to experimental data and consideration of porous morphology, appropriate changes to the geometry constants allow modification of the current models to predict with better accuracy the behaviour of porous materials with higher relative densities (lower porosity).
Three new ceramic-based materials have recently been introduced in dentistry: monolithic zirconia, zirconia-containing lithium silicate ceramics, and interpenetrating phase composite. The consensus, however, is on caution in selecting highest product quality and strict respect of manufacturers’ recommendations, with special attention on sintering temperature. Interpenetrating phase composites show great promise as excellent attempts at reproducing tooth structure. Remarkable progress has been made in ceramic processing and development over the past few years. It is likely that further breakthroughs will occur in the near future.
Nanomaterials based on the development of nanotechnology not only have better characteristics than raw materials but also have unique biological activities to improve the physicochemical properties of scaffolds and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Numerous studies have shown improving application prospects for nanomaterials in bone, cartilage, and dental and periodontal tissue regeneration in oral and maxillofacial defects.
297 articles from 35 countries met the criteria. The most represented country was the People’s Republic of China (16% of the articles). A total of 2,889 patients (10 per article on average) benefited from 3D-printed objects. The most frequent clinical indications were dental implant surgery and mandibular reconstruction. The most frequently printed objects were surgical guides and anatomic models. 45% of the prints were professional. The main advantages were improvement in precision and reduction of surgical time.
With the use of desktop 3D printer, which, in turn, reduces cost compared with that of previous commercial printers and software, eliminates laboratory and shipping expenses and possibly increases the use of guided surgery. However, this method is only as accurate as the plan and technique used during the surgery. This workflow is practical and an accurate outcome, this report is only a preliminary trial in 1 patient. The potential for this technology in dentistry is great and will only increase as the technology evolves.
3D printing is set to revolutionize many aspects of the way orthopedics is currently practiced. While the very basic printing of anatomical models also known as 3DGraphy has nearly become mainstream, use of patient speciﬁc jigs are being increasingly used for complex situations. With falling prices of metal printing, patient speciﬁc implants are likely to be norm for revision surgeries and critical bone defects. Tissue printing like the cartilage and bone printing are at the moment in realm of research and further developments will be keenly watched not only in orthopedics but by the entire regenerative medicine ﬁeld.
The technique presented allows an implant custom tray to be manufactured based on the prediction of impression copings already installed. The manufacturing method allows control over the even covering of impression material around the impression copings.
Using a digital scanner to fabricate and 3D print a prosthetic stent for protecting soft tissue grafts around implants is a quick and reliable method to ensure intimate contact of the graft to the periosteum surrounding dental implants. Advantages of this method appear to be that it is less invasive than the conventional technique (Fig. 3), it produces more uniform thickness, and it may be more comfortable for the patient than a conventional acrylic resin stent.
Biodegradable materials play an important role, especially in bone regeneration and in periodontal surgery. This paper briefly reviews some degradable polymers developed as tools for the treatment of periodontal and bone diseases. We discuss materials previously applied in other industrials contexts, such as polyesters, methylcellulose, and chitosan and we provide perspectives for their use in periodontal regeneration.