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Answer the 1 question below and reply to each student.

Student Reply must be over 150 words.

Make sure all student replies you start it with Hello (Student Name),

Question 1:

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please review the following credible sources: The Anatomy of a Discussion Board (Links to an external site.), Critical Thinking: A Guide to Skillful Reasoning (Links to an external site.), the HIS103 Research Guide: Library Resources and Primary Sources, and the HIS103 The Earliest Settled Societies Tour (Links to an external site.) for additional resources.

What do you think about when you hear the word civilization? Do we really need it in order to survive and prosper on this planet? The real question is whether we can live above subsistence without the technological innovations that densely populated settlements generate. Moreover, the question is not as frivolous as it may seem at first glance. Many cultures throughout human history consciously decided not to take the route toward nucleated settlements and the resultant consequences. The Celts represent one example from the time line of our course of a people who preferred not to have cities. The Avars, a Turkic-speaking people from Central Asia, were pastoral nomads who acquired cities during the course of their conquests, yet they used cities in ways that would strike average city dwellers as most strange.

In an initial post of 300 words, due on Day 3:

  • Define civilization in your own words, based on your understanding of the nine characteristics commonly associated with civilizations presented in Section 1.1 of your textbook.
  • From your readings in Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, choose two societies.
  • Based on at least one of the characteristics listed in Section 1.1, explain why your chosen societies can be considered civilizations.
  • Identify a specific point demonstrating how the two chosen societies are similar with regard to the characteristic you are examining.
  • Identify a specific point demonstrating how the two chosen societies differ with regard to the characteristic you are examining.
  • Provide specific examples drawn from this week’s learning materials to support your claims. Cite and format all sources according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center, using both in-text citations and providing full references at the bottom of your post.

Guided Response: Review several of your peers’ posts, and respond to two colleagues in substantive posts each of at least 150 words, comparing one of the societies you chose to one your colleague has examined. What similarities or differences do you see? What factors might explain your observations? Cite specific examples from this week’s learning materials to support your findings. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful and interactive discourse in this discussion forum. Continue to monitor the discussion forum until 11:59 p.m. on Day 7, and respond with robust dialogue to anyone who replies to your initial post.

Guided Response 1: Dallas

Define civilization in your own words, based on your understanding of the nine characteristics commonly associated with civilizations presented in Section 1.1 of your textbook.

A civilization occurs when groups of people form commonality and develop societies that accept and develop cultural bonds between the different societies. Each society may have similar cultural norms, but different traditions and beliefs. These societies interact through trade, adherence to civil authority, common communication and acceptance of each other to form the civilization. Our text describes civilization as “An organized society that develops agriculture, a written language, formal religious practices, commerce, a defined social structure, and technology” (Gregory-Abbott, & Mahdavi, 2018 ch 1, summary).

From your readings in Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, choose two societies.

The Olmec’s and Ancient Mesopotamia are my choices for comparison.

Based on at least one of the characteristics listed in Section 1.1, explain why your chosen societies can be considered civilizations.

The Olmec’s civilization developed and grew into multiple villages centered around agriculture and the ability to produce food in abundance. The surplus of food expanded trade and the development of other skills in the development of civilization (Gregory-Abbott, & Mahdavi, 2018).

Ancient Mesopotamia developed in a similar fashion to the Olmec’s using agriculture as the base of growth. Centered around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers fertile soil produces results in the immediate area and far down the river. The flow of the river and the fertile soil it produced expanded the area the civilization occupied (Gregory-Abbott, & Mahdavi, 2018).

Identify a specific point demonstrating how the two chosen societies are similar with regard to the characteristic you are examining.

Both civilizations developed and grew through the domestication of plants for agriculture purposes and the surplus of food products. Both civilizations maintained agriculture as the base to society with smaller villages supporting the efforts, both also developed city-states with-in the civilization (Gregory-Abbott, & Mahdavi, 2018).

Identify a specific point demonstrating how the two chosen societies differ with regard to the characteristic you are examining.

The Olmec civilization had a large religious dominated society with a ruling class of upper tiered people. The Olmec culture was ruled and governed though the ruling class (Gregory-Abbott, & Mahdavi, 2018).

The Mesopotamia civilization also had religion as a dominance factor and influence but set civil standards and rule of law was established with-in the civilization (Khan, 2017). The written code of law that was developed with-in the Mesopotamia civilization still exist today and demonstrate the advanced society that was established (Khan, 2017).

Reference:

Khan Academy (Jan 20, 2017) Ancient Mesopotamia | Early Civilizations | World History |Retrieved from: Ancient Mesopotamia:

Gregory-Abbott, C., & Mahdavi, F. (2018). World history: The human experience to 1600 (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Guided Response 2: Tracy

World Civilizations I

Tracy Peterson

Define civilization in your own words based on your understanding of the nine characteristics presented in Section 1.1 of your textbook?

Based on my reading and understanding from our textbook, section 1.1. I would define the word civilization as a group of people or gathering of people. That decides in order to services they need to form some type of government in order to keep the peace and so that everyone knows who is in charge. So, that everyone does not all try to make major decisions all at once. Then the next they would need to do is create a way for them to get food and keep from running out. Which would be like farming and raising animals for food or even hunting. Then as the civilization begins to progress, they would need to create a common system of writing, a type of religion, government structure, and even come across a way to trade with other civilizations that are around them. Such as for goods or services that they can trade with other people. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

From our readings in Chapter 1 and 2 Choose two societies:

The Old Kingdom (2660-2160 BCE) (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)(The Old Kingdom (2649-2130 BCE) (Prakash, 2019)) This is the other timeline dates for The Old Kingdom that I found from the website provided in the book.

Shang Dynasties (1766-1122 BCE, also known as the Yin dynasty) (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Based on at least 1 of the characteristics listed in Section 1.1 and explain why your chosen societies can be considered civilizations.

The Old Kingdom (2660-2160BCE) (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018) (2649-2130 BCE) (Prakash, 2019) I would consider this to be a civilization based on the characteristics listed in Section 1.1 because of the social order and their religion that they had. The reason is back in The Old Kingdom, their social order was a huge importance to them. Right along the side with their religion, was just as important to them. When it came to social order in The Old Kingdom it was the Pharaoh, then the upper class, working-class, lower class, and then they had the slaves. The Pharaoh role was a male role and held great power, but it was also sometimes led by a female. But they took the male title. Then with religion, I also chose this as another reason why I considered this to be a civilization characteristic because they had the Re (one of many sun gods). Which they believed that the gods and goddess rule the universe and determined the fate of all mortals. This meant that they put a huge amount of time and energy into their religion too. So, I believe these two characteristics were the strongest reasons that The Old Kingdom was considered a civilization. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

The second civilization that I chose was the Shang Dynasties: Which was also known as the Yin dynasty (1766-1122BCE). (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018) The reason I chose this to be a civilization based on the characteristics presented in our textbook in Section 1.1 is social order and their religion. Their social order was their kings and queens or as they called them rulers, the upper class, then the middle class, and the working class. Also, their religion was a huge part of their everyday life with their priests that would help the product whether they would have a good crop or not. These two characteristics are why I believe the Shang Dynasties to be considered a civilization. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Identify a specific point demonstrating how the two chosen societies are similar about the characteristic I am examining

The specific points that demonstrate how are similar to The Old Kingdom and Shang Dynasties’ characteristics that I choose to examine them with are religion and social order. These two civilizations are similar to their social order because of how each of these two societies both has one main person in charge and then have lower class’s going down from them. An example of this is:

Social Order

The Old Kingdom

This civilization was ruled by a pharaoh or the king of Egypt. Also, the pharaoh’s where in charge of the well-being of his people. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Shang Dynasties: Also known as the Yin dynasty.

This civilization was ruled by a king. Also, in the earlier stages of this civilization’s urbanization went hand in hand with the development of the social order. (Department of Asian Art, 2004)

Religion

The Old Kingdom

This civilization had many different gods and goddesses, such as Re. Which is one of many of their sun gods? The Old Kingdom believed ruled the universe and could determine the fates of all mortals. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Shang Dynasties: Also known as the Yin dynasty

This civilization had Priest and had several other gods that they worshiped and believed in. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Identify a specific point demonstrating how the two chosen societies are differences about the characteristic I am examining

The specific point that demonstrates how The Old Kingdom and Shang Dynasties characteristics that I choose to examine them with are religion and social order are different from each other. These two civilizations are similar but are different in several different ways, with the two characteristics that I chose to examine, an example of this is:

Social Order

The Old Kingdom

This civilization, The Old Kingdom, is different from the Shang Dynasties with the characteristic that I choose of social order. The difference is with The Old Kingdom the pharaoh owns everything. But the prime minister is the one who handles the actual, that actually goes on with the people’s day to day life. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

The Shang Dynasties: Also known as the Yin dynasty

The Shang Dynasties is different from The Old King with the characteristic that I Had chosen social order. The Shang Dynasties was ruled by a king, who oversaw making all the choices for how everything is handled. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Religion

The Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is different from The Shang Dynasties with the characteristic that I choose of religion. The Old Kingdom felt that the body related to the soul and that they need to pressure the body for the afterlife. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

The Shang Dynasties: Also known as the Yin dynasty

This civilization was different from The Old Kingdom with the characteristic that I choose of religion. This civilization did not believe that the soul and the body were connected as one, I believe by how I understood the reading. (Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi, 2018)

Reference:

Gregory-Abbott, C., & Mahdavi, F. (2018). World history: The human experience to

1600 (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Chapter 1: The Emergence of Complex Societies (ca. 12,000 BCE–400 BCE)

Chapter 2: Expansion, Trade, and Empire in West Asia and the Mediterranean (ca. 3000–300 BCE)

Department of Asian Art. “Shang and Zhou Dynasties: The Bronze Age of

China.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/shzh/hd_shzh.htm (October 2004)

Prakash, Tara. “Egypt in the Old Kingdom (ca. 2649–2130 B.C.).” In Heilbrunn

Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/oking/hd_oking.ht… (February 2019)

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