Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Language Systems

Anthropological Approaches* to *The* Study of Language S*ystems Language: The arbitrary vocal symbols human beings use to encode and communicate about their experience of the world and of one another. Linguistics: the scientific study of language

Linguistic anthropologists study how language is formed and how it works, the history and development of language and the relationships between language and other aspects of culture Throughout time a change in language through modern technology All human beings have language it varies in terms of its nature and all language is equally sophisticated and complex All human beings have the capacity to learn language Children who are isolate and not socialized till the age of 6 cannot learn language (feral children) Communicative competence Linguistic Anthropology

Focuses on the mechanics of language, including: Phonology (phonetics): the general study of the sounds used in speech by means of an internationally recognized system of symbols to represent the various phonetic sounds of speech. Syntax: the study of the manner in which minimum units of meaning (morphemes) are put together into phrases or sentences. Or, what English speakers call grammar. Historical Linguistics Studies the relationships of languages to one another and reconstructs how languages change over time. Includes an analysis of how the phonology of language changes over time (dialects, pidgins, creoles, and new languages).

Includes an examinations of potential universals in linguistic principles of classification (are there universal classifications for colours? ) 12 different languages before European contact, why is that important? Because that means that there were people living in the North America for a very long time. It was so diverse! Specialized field that studies the relationship between language and culture. SapirWhorf Hypothesis: all human experience is to some extent, mediated through culture and language. Objects or forces n the physical environment become labelled in language only if they have cultural significance, and language systems themselves (vocabulary and syntax_ influence speakers perceptions of the world. How do Anthropologists study language? {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Proxemics: the study of the use of space in communication. Ex. Talking too close for comfort. Handshaking etiquette. Discourse Analysis:the analysis of a stretch of speech or other form of communication longer than a sentence and united by a common theme. Often concerned with relations of power and inequality in language use and knowledge production.

Ex. Global warming, refusing to use the word in communications. The way the language gets used in power relationships is important. Unique Design Features of Human Language *Openn*ess: the creative capacity of human language Displacement: the ability to talk about absent, abstract or nonexistent objects of subjects Arbitrariness: no universal link between particular linguistic sounds (sings) and particular linguistic meanings (signified). Duality of Patterning: arrangement of sounds(phonemes) is not random, but systematically patterned to create meaning bearing unites (morphemes).

Prevarication: the ability for linguistic messages to be false or to violate convention. Lies, animals are not able to lie. Forms of Communicative Competence Linguistic Competence: human ability to learn correct assemblages of phonemes, morphemes and syntax (or grammar) Communicative Competence: human beings ability to learn culturally appropriate speech patterns. Much of communicative competence involves learning inter-textual codes. The concept of inter-textuality essentially states that meaning depends on our knowledge of linguistic and symbolic codes.

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