What are different animal’s cognitive limitations? How can we observe this in the wild?

There is obviously no black and white answer, but the study of behavioural ecology tackles this issue. Empirical studies in the animal’s natural environment are more difficult but more rewarding to conduct than lab based studies. Studies of corvids have shown hugh potential in their cognitive capabilities for solving food puzzle boxes, furthermore the spread […]

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How does light intensity control plant seed germination?

Plants contain a type of pigment called phytochrome, which are sensitive to light. Phytochrome exists in two forms: phytochrome red and phytochrome far-red. When sunlight (which contains red light) shines on the plant, phytochrome red is converted into phytochrome far-red. When a plant is in darkness, any phytochrome far-red present converts back to phytochrome red.  […]

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What role does the respiratory system play in humans?

The respiratory system is a collection of organs working together in order to oxygenate the blood and remove the waste product carbon dioxide. The respiratory system uses a method of gaseous exchange in the lungs whereby inhaled oxygen moves from an area of high concentration (lungs) to an area of low concentration (blood). 

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Why does the thickness of the heart’s chamber walls vary?

A chamber wall’s thickness is directly linked to its function. Each of the 4 chambers has a different function and so, they each have different wall thickness. The more work a chamber has to do, the thicker the wall. This explains why the left ventricle of the heart has a thicker wall than the right […]

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What is endosymbiosis and how does it relate to mitochondria?

Endosymbiosis is where two organisms live together, one inside the other: endo=in, sym=together and biosis=living. It is believed that mitochondria originated as eubacteria that were intracellular parasites of the early anaerobic eukaryotes. Evidence for this is primarily found in the mitochondrial genome. It has been sequenced and compared to many other species of bacteria and […]

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Describe the structure of the cell membrane

The cell membrane is made up of something called the phospholipid bilayer. This is exactly what it sounds like:a hydrophilic phosphate head on the outside and a hydrophobic lipid on the inside.  They form a bilayer as the hydrophilic head faces outwards as it attracts to water, a second phospholipid does so in the other […]

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How is a message transferred across a synapse?

A synapse is a junction between the end of one neuron (known as the pre-synaptic neuron) and either another neuron (known as the post-synaptic neuron) or another tissue such as muscle (such as at the neuromuscular junction – the clue is in the name!). Either way, electrical signals are being transferred to chemical signals and […]

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