Causes of Sino Indian War 1962
The Struggle for Decolonization By the end of World War II many colonies that had been under the influence of British and French rule wanted there independence from the imperial powers. The idea of decolonization, the resign of all colonial possessions by imperial powers, spread throughout Asia, India, and Africa. Decolonization contributed to the global political transformation after World War II. Imperial powers lost their control bringing fourth the uprising of new independent states.
The end of imperialist rule was one of the biggest outcomes of World War II. More than ninety nations gained their independence between the end of World War II and 1980. Among those to receive their independence was India and Africa. Before and after the war India attempted to end the British rule that controlled them. Likewise, Africa tried to end the French rule that had governed there country for years. Both countries eventually gained their independence which resulted in many unnecessary deaths. India took a non-violent approach to gain their independence, unlike Africa who chose to use violence.
Mohandas Gandhi is credited with leading India to independence. Ghandi took on a non-violent approach to led the people of India to protest non-violently for their freedom. In April of 1919, Gandhi called for the people of India whom wanted their independence from Britain to participate in a nationwide halt, from their work place to protest peacefully (Bentley 1027). The peaceful protest was ended when the British police started arresting people and beating them in the heads with their batons. Gandhi was arrested and spent 6 months in jail, which did not stop him from demanding India’s freedom (Bentley 1027). Ghandi gained many followers who also believed in non-violence. In 1919 in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, 379 peaceful demonstrators were killed by the British authorities (Bentley 1028). Innocent people were killed including woman and children, for no apparent reason other than they posed a threat to the British rule.
The troublesome battle between the Muslims and Hindus posed a problem for India. The Muslims feared their minority status in a free India dominated by Hindus (Bentley 1102). Gandhi urged all Indians to act and feel as one nation, undivided, emphasizing religious over national identity. In attempts to end the religious battle Gandhi started to fast (Bentley 1102). In August of 1946, in the midst of negotiations with the British to reach terms regarding independence the Muslim League called for a Day of Action, even though the Muslim demonstrations would lead to rioting and fighting between Muslims and Hindus.
Six thousand people died in the Great Calcutta Killing (Bentley 1102). India gained its independence with the separation of the religions India became the home of the Hindus, while Pakistan became the home of the Muslims. Thousands of Muslim and Hindu refugees migrated either to India or Pakistan. Ten million refugees made the long tortuous journey to one or the other state, and between a half million to a million people died in the violence that accompanied the massive human migrations (Bentley 1104). Ghandi was shot and killed he became a victim to his own cause, he was killed by violence. Though hindered in violence Indian independence became a reality with significant consequences for the process of decolonization. Ghandi’s resistance to British rule inspired nationalists around the globe before and after World War II, independence in India and Pakistan encouraged anti-imperialism movements throughout Asia and Africa.
In Africa the French resisted decolonization. In 1954 the French fought a bloody war over Algeria. Ironically, France allowed all its other territories in Africa to gain independence (Bentley 1111). In 1956 France granted independence to its colonies in Morocco and Tunisia, and thirteen French colonies in west and equatorial Africa. France was determined to have complete control over Algeria at all costs (Bentley 1111). The end of the war marked the beginning of a nationalist movement in Algeria, caused by the desire of independence from France.
Frantz Fanon was credited with fame for being an Algerian revolutionary, who had influenced the people to take action violently. Unlike Ghandi he believed that violence against the colonial oppressors were the best means of gaining independence (Bentley 1112). The Algerian revolt sparked from an event in May of 1945. French colonial police fired shots into a peaceful protest in support of Algerian and Arab nationalism (Bentley 1111). Algerian rioting and French repression of the disturbance took place after this incident. Eight thousand Algerian Muslims died, along with one hundred French in the heat of the riots (Bentley 1111).
The Algerian war of liberation began in 1954 under the command of the National Liberation Front (FLN). The FLN adopted tactics similar to those of nationalist liberations groups in Asia, relying on bases in outlaying mountainous areas and resorting to guerrilla warfare (Bentley 1111). Innocent Algerian civilians became trapped in the crossfire of the war and were killed. By the end of the war in 1962 Algeria had gained its independence from France, resulting in the death of hundreds of thousands of Algerians (Bentley 111).
The end of World War II sparked the growing effort of decolonization. Through violent and non- violent actions countries gained their independence from imperialist rule. India and Africa took different approaches on their fight for independence, but resulted in the same with the lost of many lives and gaining their freedom. Although the violent approach sent up red warning flags to the French telling them that it was time to let go of Algeria; the non-violent approach received the same results, but ended in a more ethical victory. India was left with pride that they did not have to stoop down to the imperialist levels and fight and kill them like they had killed so many innocent Indians gaining them respect world wide.