Compare and Contrast Sandro Botticelli and Hans Memling
When it comes to making an analysis in the history of world arts around 15th century, Sandro Botticelli and Hans Memling are notable for being the most significant painters around this time. Both artist have paintings based on various Bible stories that appeared quite rapidly as such works had already become quite prestigious at that age.
Sandro Botticelli’s Annunciation represents the announcement made by the Angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God. Botticelli creates the illusion of depth in his painting showing the classic architectural designs achieved by using a very sophisticated technique called one point perspective that was developed in early fifteenth-century Florence.
Using the incised lines visible on the panel’s surface, Botticelli was able to create the complex composition through the one perspective method.
Botticelli’s focus was different than Hans Memling as he focused more on larger objects In comparison with Hans Memling’s Annunciation is a symbolically painted Altarpiece revealing more details on smaller objects and focuses more on religious imagery by portraying the Virgin Mary swooning off the floor and supported by two angels, rather than showing her kneeling like other common paintings.
Memling displays religious symbolism using everyday objects throughout the painting, for example the room is furnished with simple everyday objects that indicate her purity. For the viewers, the basic difference between the two paintings are the areas where the artists pay more detail to.
In Botticelli’s painting he puts in most detail in architectural work and design while Memling uses vivid colors and fine lines in his painting to display more detail even when looking closely at random objects in the picture you can see the close attention to detail in his work. This way he also created the impression of depth in the foreground.
Sandro Botticelli was a highly skilled Italian artist and one of his secrets to his success was that he used some of the same methods consistently throughout his career till he perfected them. Although he was simple in his approach, he was willing to altar around and change traditional procedures to include recent innovations that he used in his artwork.
In common with other painters of the time, Botticelli worked with craftsmen providing designs for ecclesiastical vestments and furnishings which helped him perfect his technique of illusion of depth that was most refined in the architectural aspect of the Annunciation painting. In Botticelli’s Annunciation painting he followed methods that he had been previously used in his artwork.
By focusing on the contrast of the architecture in the house, and making dark shadows on the walls and ceiling, he was able to give the viewer a sense of depth in the painting. botticelli was notable for his use of colors and believed to have the finest pigments of his time, and the Annunciation was no exception. even though some might say his paintings lost the fullness of their colors and had the tendency of colors to become more transparent over the years.
in the Annunciation painting the viewers can still notice his use of only 3 primary colors throughout the painting between white, blue, and brown in different subtle shades in representation of the virgin receiving the news from the angel surrounded by classic Italian architecture. His choice of colors worked effectively to create an extraordinary luminous subtlety, especially in areas representing reflected light.
The panoramic view also enhances the contrast between close up and far away, creating a strong spatial suggestion and giving the viewer a sense of the size of the house Mary was in. Furthermore, Botticelli enhanced the effect of illusion of depth by painting lines on the walls and ceiling of the house on top of adding house columns everywhere making it seem as Mary and the angel were in different rooms.
Hans Memling was one of the most important Early Netherlandish painters. In his thirty-year career he introduced several innovations in his art and a lot of artists after his death were inspired by his work. The 1470’s were probably the most prosperous years in Memling’s life. In this period, portraits were one of the most important parts of Memling’s production.
One third of the artist’s works, still preserved today, are portraits. The popularity of his portraits was probably due to the personal touch that he gave to the existing portrait style. The Netherlandish clientele particularly appreciated his portraits.
The Annunciation was no exception around 1480 This painting was drawn by Memling presenting the announcement made by the angel to Mary that she will be the mother of Jesus yet still keeping her virginity. In the painting Memling shows the high quality and sense of detail, typical of Memling’s portraits.
Mary and the angel Gabriel are drown with fine long, thin nose, thin eyebrows, thin lips, big eyes and a narrow, smallish chin. Gabriel has medium-length wavy hair, tightly bound around his ahead by a diadem with a little cross. Mary has long, wavy brown hair, separated in the middle, and holds her head slightly tilted with a pigeon flying over her head representing the Holy Ghost or holy spirit.
Mary is portrayed with more than one angel in the painting which is something that wasn’t common in most annunciation pictures. Gabriel is making a blessing gesture with his right hand. Mary is looking at what it seems to be the book of hours on her left hand side while she her right hand on her chest, indicating that she accepts Gabriel’s message.
Despite the important stylistic similarities in the paint layers and the underlying drawings in his early works, the Annunciation was innovative because it was considered a ‘living’ grisaille. Imitating the sculptured altarpieces, it was common in the 15th Century to use the grisaille technique in painted altarpieces.
Memling followed this tradition, but the difference that he applied colours to the heads, hands, feet, the lily and the majolica vase, while keeping the clothes completely white. this way he brought his figures to life and his painting stood out between the rest of the artist for his attention to detail to making realistic figures in his painting and being one of the first artist to add a background to his paintings.
Both artist masterpieces are special in their own aspects with presenting the annunciation. Having observed both artistic works, it is evident to say that in spite of both works representing the same story taken from the Bible, each artist had their own interpretation of it and that is demonstrated by their masterpieces.
Comparing the artistic works created by of both Botticelli and Hans Hemling, it is obvious that they differ from each other very much as the composition, color, and light are different on both works of art. the central figure which is Virgin Mary is depicted in quite a different way. In Botticelli’s painting, the virgin is leaning towards the angel, shaping her body to a similar form of an “S” shape. The Virgin is wearing dark blue robe and green clothes.
The hands of the angel and the Virgin play an integral role for the whole work. Mary’s hand is on her chest demonstrating a sign of acceptance and greeting in defense. While the angel is kneeling down with his head bowed down and holding a flower with his hand showing a sign of mutual respect to the virgin.
The interior architectural design is more than significant in Botticelli’s painting since there is no exterior of what the landscape outside looked like. For the precise understanding of the fact that Virgin Mary is surrounded by walls and two windows that only show a low quality drawing of a tree. On the inside you can see that the house lacks furniture and its painted mostly dark colors to demonstrate the Virgin’s poverty and humbleness.
Yet the stylistic resemblances between both works go much further than what one sees at first sight, as in the annunciation painting by Hans Memling there is also no exterior and most detail is shown inside the house with also two windows only showing light coming in and the blue skies outside. No dark colors are used in order to depict Virgin Mary’s room.
Unlike Botticelli’s painting. the body of the Virgin is shown standing not kneeling and supported by two angels. The Virgin is dressed in dark blue blue robe and light blue clothes, matching the outside sky color. The Virgin Mary is shown in both paintings reading a book when the angel Gabriel entered her bedroom. In Hans Memling’s version of the picture, no poverty is intended to be demonstrated.
The room is well-furnished, mostly bright and vivid colors are used around the room. In both paintings a lily flower is shown but displayed differently, botticelli shows the lily flower in the angel’s hands and Memling displays the flower in the vase in front of Virgin Mary, which is a symbol of her virginity.
Another detail, that’s shown differently in both paintings, is the book Virgin Mary was reading when the angel Gabriel appeared in her room. It is obvious that the book is opened on a certain page; although it remains unknown what exactly this page is, the viewer can only guess that the Virgin was reading the prophetic words of Isaiah: Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign, Behold, a young woman shall conceive and bear the son, or others assume it was a book of hourly prayers.
Another striking element is that Gabriel’s wings have the same shape and even the ribbon that he is wearing crosswise over his chest is shown in both paintings. Finally, the clothes in both paintings are folded in a similar way. The long, wide folds that extend on the floor have a strong three-dimensional aspect.
Memling takes symbolism a step further with displaying a candle holder on the nightstand with no candles in them, to denote a symbol of the Annunciation, as well. Since that moment, the Virgin is known to bear her own Light, and this Light is Jesus Christ.
In conclusion, it is necessary to admit that, in spite of both paintings were created, two authors illustrated the scene in their own style and manner. This difference lies both in the ancestry of them and their individual style and vision of the story taken from the Bible. Hans Memling’s masterpiece is full of numerous details; each of them is a source for better understanding the artistic work.
Botticelli emphasized on the position of the hands of the angel and Virgin Mary, the lack of details also plays a significant role in the whole impression of the viewers. Both Botticelli and Memling only showed the interior of the room. Both artist used different color patterns that were used in order to demonstrate the necessary effect that needed to be achieved.
The position of the Virgin differs much in both paintings as well, in addition, Botticelli depicted only Mary and the angel on his work of art while Hans Memling preferred to show not only them but also two smaller angels who are standing behind the Virgin. These main differences make both pictures more than unique and of certain interest for all art critics and historians.