Cultural Diversity

Table of contents

Understanding diversity

Definitions of diversity range from distributive concerns based on the traditional categories of race, ethnicity and gender to the inclusion of a vast array of differences in age, sexual orientation, disability, employment status, tenure, function, educational background, lifestyle, religion, values and beliefs in addition to race, ethnicity and gender.

In the recent CIPD report, Diversity: Stacking up the evidence (Anderson and Metcalf 2003), three different types of workforce diversity were identified:

  • Social category diversity relates to differences in demographic characteristics, such as age and race.
  • Informational diversity refers to diversity of background such as knowledge, education, experience, tenure and functional background.
  • Value diversity includes differences in personality and attitudes.

One of the most influential and well-received definitions of diversity management in the UK are given by Kandola and Fullerton:

‘The basic concept of managing diversity accepts that the workforce consists of a diverse population of people consisting of visible and non-visible differences including factors such as sex, age, background, race, disability, personality and work style and is founded on the premise that harnessing these differences will create a productive environment in which everyone feels valued, where all talents are fully utilized and in which organizational goals are met.’

The positive benefits of managing diversity:

  1. Diversity enhances customer relations and increases market share.
  2. Diversity enhances employee relations and reduces the cost of labour.
  3. Diversity improves workforce quality and performance in terms of diverse skills, creativity, problem-solving and flexibility.

The negative outcomes of failing to manage workforce diversity:

  1. low morale
  2. ambiguity
  3. conflict and tension
  4. confusion and communication problems

These undermine organisational attachment and reduce effectiveness and workforce cohesion.

Diversity & business success

The effects of workforce diversity are conditioned by other organisational and contextual factors. 2. Diversity can’t be used as a competitive organisational strength unless it’s managed effectively.

Factors that influence the effects of diversity:

  1. the nature of work tasks
  2. corporate business strategy
  3. diversity and organizational culture
  4.  diversity and context.

The nature of work tasks

Regarding the effects of the nature of work tasks on the diversity–business-success relationship, Cordero suggest that, ‘Homogeneity appears to be a benefit for groups with more routine tasks, while heterogeneity produces benefits for groups with more complex and interdependent tasks.’ In other words, diversity among employees delivers a competitive advantage for organizations when the performance of novel and
complex tasks that require high levels of creative thinking, innovation and problem-solving skills are involved. Corporate business strategy “A” growth-oriented, culturally diverse organisation benefits from employees who are flexible in their thinking and who are less likely to be concerned about departing from the norm.’ Firms adopting growth strategies benefit from the increased levels of performance stemming from gender diversity at managerial level.

The positive relationship between business performance and workforce diversity in growth-oriented organizations holds true for race diversity as well as gender diversity; but race diversity is shown to be associated with harmful and negative outcomes for the downsizing firms.

Diversity and organizational culture

The third point that needs to be considered in analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of diversity regarding business success is organisational culture. It’s argued that certain organisational cultures nurture the positive effects of diversity while others dampen them.

According to the research findings of Chatman et al (1998) organisational cultures based on collectivist values positively moderate the relationship between workforce diversity and business performance by dissolving the conflicts stemming from and fostering the potential benefits of diversity.

Dwyer et al (2003 p1017), in their research of 535 banks on the relationship between management-level gender diversity, growth orientation and organisational culture, found that ‘the impact of gender diversity on performance was dependent on the organisation context.’

Using the typology of cultures developed by Quinn and his colleagues, Dwyer et al argued that workforce diversity provides business benefits in a ‘clan culture characterized by participation, teamwork, employee focus, consensual problem-solving and decision-making – and in an adhocracy culture – characterized by flexibility, spontaneity, individualism, entrepreneurship,
creativity, and adaptability (Dwyer et al 2003 pp1011–1012).

Another feature of the organisational culture that moderates the effects that diversity has on business performance is the extent to which equal opportunities and diversity are part of it.

Knouse and Dansby (2000) argue that organizations that embrace equal opportunities and diversity gain advantage through increased effectiveness, satisfaction

Diversity and context

To assess the impact of diversity on organisational performance, it‘s crucial to overcome ‘the widespread use of the “one-size-fits-all“‘approach (Moor Barak 2000 p347).

Glastra et al (2000 p709) advocates a contextual approach to managing diversity:

‘If diversity management is to have a positive impact, it must develop adequate solutions to organisational problems in the workplace. Issues such as structural arrangements, cultural patterns and the nature of the core business, external relationships and the strategic mission of an organisation all need to be taken into account. This calls for thorough and detailed organisational analysis. ‘

Working with diverse cultures

It is easy to identify the inherent obstacles and barriers associated with differences in religion, class, age, disability, veteran status, sexual orientation, region of origination, educational level or even paid employees versus volunteer staff. The first phase of making the most of diversity is to: make a concerted effort to become aware of what dimensions of cultural diversity exist within an organization acknowledging there are differences between individuals and groups of people is an important initial phase.

When conflicts, ill feelings or stressful situations arise due to the sub-cultures involved, it is because of “differences.” The second phase of making the most of diversity is for people to talk about their cultural differences. Two things must be remembered concerning cultural diversity: People should remember it is difficult to address cultural differences without resorting to stereotypes. In the purest form, there is no such thing as a stereotype. No person is exactly like another person and no individual is a clone of another member of a group. As diversity in an organization grows, so does the complexity of communication and the necessity to spend greater effort developing improved communication skills. Awareness and discussion can cause a clearer picture of cultural diversity. Appreciation and understanding of cultural diversity means not just tolerating differences among individuals or groups, but supporting and nurturing them. Diversity creates opportunities for character development by teaching tolerance and respect for people and by encouraging concern for equity. A culturally – diverse coalition that values and nurtures people from all backgrounds is worthy of active participation. Such an organization will flourish and perpetuate. Attention to cultural diversity may be the necessary catalyst for making things happen.

Gender diversity in the workplace

In the past, all women in the workplace were automatically assigned to temporary or part-time or low responsibility jobs because it was understood that their first priority was taking care of their families. Unmarried women were likely to quit as soon as they married. Women with children were understood to care more about the children than about work. In addition, there was a widespread belief that women were not as capable as men, either physically or mentally or emotionally. Today, women are not generally seen as inferior to men. And there are women who want to put work first and family second. Most women in the workforce do not see it as temporary. Organizations have been slowly adjusting to these changes, learning to treat women as the equals of men and not as a pool of potential dates.

Both discriminating against female employees (in terms of hiring and advancement) and treating them in a sexual manner (sexual harassment) are now against the law. However, since there remain some women in the workforce who do place family first, Felice Schwartz has suggested creating a “Mommy Track” which would allow them to have more flexible and shorter hours and lesser responsibility in exchange for lower pay and limited career growth. In other words, recognize the wider diversity of needs of employees today and set up systems to accommodate them all. Feminists worry that creating a Mommy Track effectively licenses corporations to discriminate against women. They feel that women (and presumably men!) should be allowed to have flexible work arrangements and remain on the fast track. Some people regard issues of treatment of various employee groups, such as those based on gender, race, and sexual orientation as primarily an issue of moral fairness. Women should be given the same career opportunities as men; homosexual couples should be given the same health insurance benefits as heterosexual couples. American society and culture has changed considerably on these issues over the last 150 years (when women were not allowed to vote and slavery was still practiced), and organizations are asked to not only follow suit but lead the way.

However, many managers would counter that organizations are not supposed to change American society. They are supposed to manufacture goods and provide services for money. Their responsibilities are to their stockholders, not women’s groups. It might be morally desirable for corporations to give all their profits to the poor, but it would not be responsible action. Others see the issues primarily in strategic terms. Organizations compete for human resources and as the workforce becomes more heterogeneous, organizations will have to serve the diverse needs of this workforce or they will lose them to their competitors. Organizations that discriminate against women are forced to select workers from a smaller pool, reducing their ability to find top performers. At the same time, some managers would point out that increased diversity can cause management problems. For example, having more women has meant more problems with sexual harassment (even if it’s the men’s fault). Increased diversity brings with it the need for more flexibility, which makes management more complicated (e.g., scheduling, compensation plans, interpersonal communication).


Ethics starts with the basic assumptions all employees live according to basic moral guidelines and conduct themselves in the work environment accordingly. No matter the size of a company, unethical behavior can cripple the company’s ability to attract customers, be approved for credit or maintain business partnerships. Different organizations and jobs may have different ethical issues arise and require a set standard of ethics. Even beyond professional practices, it is imperative that financial officers maintain fiduciary responsibility or that sales teams provide honest and reliable information in the sales process. Down the tier of employees, managers want to hire people who do what they say they will and perform their best at all times. Values and ethics are important in the workplace to help keep order, ensuring that a company runs smoothly and remains profitable. Each individual company makes its values and ethics known almost immediately after hiring an employee, or many times, during the interview process. And in many businesses, no matter how well an employee performs, if he doesn’t follow workplace values and ethics, it can result in termination. Dedication

How hard an employee works, or how much effort she puts forth, can go a long way. Obviously, companies want results, but most employers prefer a worker who gives an honest effort to one who might be considered a “natural” at the job, but is otherwise disruptive. Either way, when an employee signs on with a business, she is agreeing to perform her best to help the company flourish. Integrity

An important aspect of workplace values and ethics is integrity, or displaying honest behavior at all times. For instance, an employee who works at a cash register is expected to balance the drawer and deposit the correct amount of money at the end of the night. Integrity in the business world also might mean being honest when turning in an expense report or not attempting to steal a sales account from a co-worker. Accountability

Employees in all industries are expected to act accountable for their actions. That means showing up when they are scheduled and on time, and not taking advantage of time allotted for breaks. It also means accepting responsibility for when things go wrong, gathering yourself and willingly working toward a resolution. And sometimes it might mean working longer than planned to see a project through to completion.


In almost every industry, workplace values and ethics consist of teamwork. That’s because most companies believe that when morale is high and everyone is working together, success will follow. So it is important for employees to be team players–whether assisting co-workers on a project, teaching new hires new tasks, or following the instructions of a supervisor.


Employee conduct is an integral aspect of workplace values and ethics. Employees must not only treat others with respect, but exhibit appropriate behavior in all facets of the job. That includes wearing proper attire, using language that’s considered suitable around the office and conducting themselves with professionalism. Every company enforces its own specific rules on conduct, and typically makes them extremely clear in employee handbooks and training manuals.

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Final Week 9 Cultural Diversity

FINAL Cultural Diversity Week 9 Final Currently I live in a community of approximately 21,785 people according to the 2010 US Census. Herriman, which is about 20 miles southwest of Salt Lake City has grown by leaps and bounds over the last twelve years. Herriman was founded as a farming community in 1849 and was incorporated in 1999. Herriman still feels like a small town, an idea which is held onto by its community leaders and population. I noticed while in researching the varying statistics for my city that I look like about 90% of the population.

At 38, I am a little bit older than the average age of 27, but I am Caucasian, as are the majority of the residents. I noted with interest, during our last mayoral race, the current mayor spent the time to go out and knock on doors introducing himself to everyone. He made a significant impact on me as he stood and visited with my family and seemed to have the same values and ideals that I do. I cannot say that I have noticed a large difference in how minorities are treated by members of my community.

In fact, in my local neighborhood we have a few families of varying ethnicities which have been welcomed and encouraged to teach about their homelands. It has been fascinating to watch and learn about the cultures from which they came and even to try some of the more traditional foods. The text and manuals that we have covered throughout class have covered the varying people that I am like. Caucasians have been notable throughout history and their information is fairly well published.

I also noted that coming from an Irish background through several lines, the Irish were well represented. I did note a lack of other European descendants being listed through the text; I have a very strong relation to the Danish culture and did not find any information in regards to that culture in our texts at all. The local media looks much like the state, which is to say white, with a few people of color thrown in. It shouldn’t be made light of; it just feels that after everything has been so serious in discussion that lightening up the conversation cannot hurt.

I have noticed as I have gotten older that we have gained a larger population of various minorities and they have begun to change the way that we see things as well as the way that we are being represented. I feel that this is a great step forward. I have noticed the biggest difference between me and most of the people in local leadership is that they are male while I am female. There is a definite lack of female leadership in our government here. Within the last ten years female leadership has increased, yet still has not changed dramatically.

I have noticed that more women are running for various offices throughout the state and feel confident that this will change the local governments as well. As our minority population has grown, there have also been changes in the state government in regards to representation becoming more diverse. I feel this helps represent their interests in the community, and again feel that as people move and spread out in the local communities this will affect the local governments as well.

While I do not feel that I can do a lot to change various inequities, I feel that by volunteering my time to the youth in my area I will help set them up into be more able to make changes in the future. It appears that in speaking with friends they note the same various situations that I have mentioned. Yet, because I live in a neighborhood where the majority of people are married and the wives are homemakers, I do bring a different perspective into conversations.

Speaking with a local neighbor and friend, who was a former elementary school teacher, she noted that she feels that our culture is fairly self-contained due to our religious affiliations and yet she is one of the most outgoing individuals that I have met. She indicated that there is a trend to assume that people are just like you and not take the time to get to know anyone else. I have noted her on long walks through the neighborhood stopping to talk to anyone that happened to be outside and visit.

Something that we both agreed on was the way that the community is very friendly and welcoming to people. It really starts with the neighborhood and then extends out into our city. A prime example of this was the “UP” house that a local builder wanted to build. He wanted to build a home that was a replica of the home in Disney’s “UP”. After contacting Disney and going through varying channels, Disney agreed to the home as long as they were allowed certain stipulations, he went looking for a community to build the home.

He had contacted several cities, and Herriman agreed to allow him to build the home. The neighborhood had a HOA which agreed, despite it being colors not normally permitted, and a style different from the area, they would permit him to build and allow it into the HOA coding. However, the builder’s stipulation was that, when sold, the new homeowners had to agree to keep the colors. The home was built and each and every detail was matched to the specifications of the Disney standard, they went so far as to design the interior with the same furniture, which had to be created to replicate it.

Herriman and the community welcomed this builder in during the annual “Parade of Homes” in order to make them feel more comfortable. Finally, the home was sold to a couple that wanted to move back to Utah after several years in California and the home remains the pastel coloring of the Disney design. Herriman leaders felt that having the home built in Herriman was an economic boost they were unable to turn down, and afterwards gave an honor to Bangerter Homes in recognition of such. This type of innovative government thinking is definitely in line with how any community I live in should function.

I want my community leaders to always be looking at the next best source to bring economic development closer to home. Not only does this benefit the city, but it benefits me because the city has more to offer. Growing up, I lived in a more diverse area of the Salt Lake Valley and was exposed to varying cultures and ethnicities which helped me gain a firm understanding of treating people with respect, and with dealing with varying races. However, the governments there were more old fashioned and less adaptable to today’s changing environment’s.

I feel as if this community was actually less welcoming than the one that I am currently in because of this. The prior community may have had a more diverse community, but welcoming new and local businesses was not something that the government chose to promote. Living in Herriman, I have noticed that many of the government officials as well as other leaders are active in getting out and being a part of the community and ensuring that we are aware as citizens of anything that might affect us; from the opening of a new restaurant, to a fire that is burning out of control.

Herriman city officials have a local Facebook account and Twitter feeds that are used to help notify their citizens on a regular basis of varying volunteer activities, emergencies, CPR training classes and more. It is another way that the community in which I live is actively trying to encourage its citizens to be part of it; this reflects my views on how a community should interact. I believe that in being part of a community, you want to be involved; you want to support local business and taking advantage of times that you can volunteer to help. For instance, going out to reseed a mountain after a grass fire helps build community relations.

I enjoy living where I do and feel that I have found a mostly perfect fit for my family. People take care of their yards, their homes, they are active and want to do things to improve not only themselves, but the community in which we live. All of these are ideals that coincide with how I feel a community should be. References: http://www. city-data. com/city/Herriman-Utah. html#top www. herrimancity. org http://www. sltrib. com/sltrib/news/53012557-78/hamblin-lynette-disney-herriman. html. csp http://www. facebook. com/HerrimanCity http://twitter. com/BeReadyHerriman

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Managing Cultural Diversity

Summary This academic paper will consider the study “Cooperation and competition in intercultural interactions” conducted by David Matsumoto and Hyi Sung Hwang, San Francisco State University, United States. Prisoner’s Dilemma, Ultimatum, Trust Game are well-known play games which allowed to accumulate sufficient knowledge in the presented area of studies in terms of cooperation, competition, punishment, trust, trustworthy and clearly demonstrates that people of different cultures plays these games differently.

Earlier research has come to conclusion that intercultural interactions shows less positive results in cooperative behaviors in game play than intracultural interactions; but to date no empirical links have been made between behavioral outcomes and cultural differences between the participants, which became the actual purpose of the study. The first hypothesis is that Intercultural condition will produce less positive behavioral outcomes and cooperation than the Control condition and the second hypotheses states that these behavioral differences are connected to cultural differences.

Organizers of the study offered modified version of Prisoner’s Dilemma where partner either country mate or international one. Americans were put in the same sex-dyads in one of three conditions: with another American participants (Control Condition – 120 people, 40 males and 80 females), with an international student (Intercultural condition – 41 Americans, 20 males, 21 females and 41 international participants, 20 males and 21 females), or with another American but under stressful condition (Stress conditions – 90 people, 44 males and 46 females).

The aim of the participants is to increase their participation fee, and they were told that an amount of paid sum depends on their play, in reality they received standard amount of fee. They were seated opposite each other and were not allowed to talk, each pair was separated by divider, Experimenter observed the play on the other side of the table. Each participant was given 20 1$ coins and a blue (competitiveness, defection or betrayal) and yellow (cooperation, trust, vulnerability) card.

They had an option whether to play with blue or yellow card within the time allotted for each play. Participants in the Control and Intercultural Conditions were instructed to increase their original payoffs and they received participation fee regardless they won or lost the play; the length of each round 20 s. Participants in stress conditions were instructed that one participant should win over other, and winner will receive all coins from looser; each round lasted for 4 s. Play continued for 20 rounds, or until one of the players lost all their money.

Researchers opted a broad-based approach, where they defined a set of context variables (they were extracted from the plays and summed across both players for production a score for each pair) and in addition they created 10 individual characteristics (cooperation, betrayal, forgiveness, retaliation, reparation, defection, reconciliation, stalemate, prosocial acts, antisocial acts); examined indices of cultural differences between pairs of individuals from different cultures, using home country scores on Hofestede’ (2001) cultural dimensions (Individualism vs. Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity vs.

Femininity, and Long vs. Short Term Orientation) . Researches also created cultural differences score in the intercultural condition. All participants passed a personality test (Neo-Five Factor Inventory) and were qualified as acceptable. Besides this, participants self-reported their emotions using 9- point scale (0-9 anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, surprise, pride, shame, embracement, guilt, interest and etc. ) before entering the experiment room and after. For the intercultural Conditions researches computed Cultural Distances scores for each pair using Hofstede’s (2001) five cultural dimensions.

As the result after computing dependent/independent variable (Condition), taking into consideration that pair had the same characteristics (same sex strangers in the same condition), analyzing data for hypotheses, conducting post hoc comparisons using Scheffe tests, thus researchers concluded that Intercultural Condition looked like the Stress Condition, demonstrating worse behavioral outcomes than the Control Condition despite the Intercultural Conditions had the same instructions and procedures as the ontrol Condition. Hypothesis 1 was proved. Initiators of the study also computed pair level correlations between Geographic and Cultural Distance scores with each of the behavioral outcomes in the Intercultural Conditions. Greater cultural Distance on Power Distance was reliably was strongly associated with less positive behavioral outcomes.

Hypothesis 2 was supported. Discussion Strengths This study is the very first research which empirically linked behavioral outcomes to cultural differences between the players and it is undeniable that these findings play will make essential contribution for future empirical works, business development, intercultural trainers and participants itself.

Organizers of the study introduced personality scale to control individual-level effects, offered participants to self-report twice their emotional state prior and after experiment, measured and computed dependent/independent context variables (used well-known Hofested’s cultural dimensions) in order to reduce the possibility of commitment of the ecological and cultural attribution fallacy. Limitations

Cross-cultural literature do not explain us sufficiently what happens in intercultural situations because cross-cultural differences are not necessarily translated to behavioral differences in intercultural interactions; moreover, there is no empirical demonstration that less cooperative and more destructive behaviors associated with intercultural interactions connected to cultural differences between the participants.

Game rules and experimental procedure make direct comparisons very difficult and there is a possibility that instructions are interpreted differently in different cultures. Difference scores of participants’ home country scores on cultural dimensions are not strongly linked to participants because they are simply diffuse and abstract. Methodology didn’t allow for separation of relative standing of the relative standing of power distance and examination of whether differences were consistent at different values of dimension.

Another concerns how the participants in the Intercultural Condition perceive differences between each other. Plus, it is implicit whether these perceptions are automatic or deliberate thought. One of the limitations of the study related to potential explanatory variables (such variables may have been at play) that were not measured (culturally-based, individual differences in economic expectations, religious differences etc. ) References Matsumoto D. Hwang H. S. , (2011), Cooperation and competition in intercultural interactions, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 35 , Issue 5 , pp. 677-685 Ailon, G. (2008). Mirror, mirror on the wall: Culture’s consequences in a value test of its own design. Academy of Management Review, 33(4), 885–904. Allik, J. , & Realo, A. (2004). Individualism–Collectivism and social capital. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(1), 29–49.

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Future of Cultural Diversity

This paper is intended to voice my hopes on the future of cultural diversity and explain how we could use the knowledge of each other’s culture to build humanity and to bring about social reform for all people. It will also give examples of diversity challenges and opportunities. The world as we know it has […]

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Cultural Diversity Self- Identification

Race defines me as Mexican, German, and Irish. My religion defines me as Catholic. My country of birth defines me as American. However, I believe these terms describing me, merely list historical facts and statistics. The fact remains; I belong to these various groups by birth, not choice. I believe I am fortunate that my […]

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Cultural Diversity in the Healthcare Field

Cultural Diversity in the Healthcare field The Many Faces of Healthcare Cultural Diversity in the Healthcare Field Carl Hooks Rasmussen College Author Note This research is being submitted on September 16, 2010, for Vicky Philips English class at Rasmussen College by Carl Hooks Cultural diversity in the medical field is, at times, greatly hindered because of religious beliefs, language barriers, and the hierarchies of diverse cultures and these have the propensity to affect the continuity of care for the patients. “Every person has different aspects that constitute their identities, according to how they see themselves….

This means that seeing an individual in terms of their identity can be unproductive. ” (Weaver, 2009). Nursing personnel, in particular, have to take into consideration any and all cultural differences between the patient and the nursing staff. These differences vary in as many ways as there are different ethnic groups in any particular area. Religious beliefs can hinder the nursing care of patients. There are many different religious beliefs in as many different religions. The religious belief most common in the United States, of course, is the Jehovah Witness who refuses transfusions.

This religion has a strong belief in preserving the soul before the body. Other religions have other beliefs that we may not understand, but need to respect and try to work around to care for the patient. “If people believe it is God who confers both health and illness, it may be very difficult to get them to take their medication or change their behavior…. they would see no point worrying about high blood pressure or bacteria when moral behavior is the key to good health. ” (Galanti, 2001). This kind of belief will impede the medical staff and their approach to a medical cure.

Whenever possible, staff should attempt of incorporate both religious beliefs and medicine to care for the patient. For the most part (miracles do happen), religious beliefs can delay the care and health of the patient, and leaves the health professionals with a huge dilemma about what to do, and greatly delays the healing process. To understand how religion plays a role in the care given to the patient is to give better care for our patients. Consequently, the vast majority of people do believe in some sort of religion, whether it is God or some other higher power. Cultural factors stemming from religious beliefs and practices can have an intense impact on health. ” (Abdoul and Abdoul, 2010). There may come a time when the medical staff has to provide a towel (prayer matt) and a quiet place to pray to a culture that does not consider the common hospital chapel an appropriate place to pray.

In some religious, “It is commonly believed that illness is sent from God as retribution for sins since God is viewed as the afflicter as well as healer. ” (Abdoul and Abloul,2010). Food also plays a big part in some religions which go beyond the traditional Jewish mother’s chicken soup. …. it is important to know that religious beliefs and practices can influence food choice, as there may be individuals within a group that observe strict dietary requirements. ” (Black, 2010). All religious back grounds should be taken into consideration and, whenever possible, be provided for, and this will aid in promoting effective health care. Language barriers pose great difficulties when communicating with patients. It is imperative that both patient and nursing staff understand exactly what is being said. For this reason an appropriate trained or certified interpreter should be utilized whenever possible.

Health care workers are experiencing more language difficulties than ever before. “Fully 54 million Americans…. roughly 20 percent of the population…. do not speak English at home. ” (Armand and Hubbard,2010). With the exception of California, Texas, and Florida, which have over 43 percent of the population, that are classified LEP (limited English proficient). The interpreter should be trained to interpret on the patients behalf. Family members, at times, can be of great assistance, but then HIPPA comes into play.

The patient may not want a particular family member to know about their health problems. The language barrier does inhibit sufficient care, and this should be addressed with the utmost of care and consideration for both the medical staff and patient. Insuring that the patient fully understands what is being done to them is of great importance. As patients, they have the right to understand what is being done and why. Informed consent must be given; the patient should be able to repeat what they have been informed of before the procedure is done. Currently “only 33 percent of U.

S. hospitals have quality improvement efforts underway to improve the quality of their language access programs. ” (Armand and Hubbard, 2010). The goal of the interpreter is to assure that the LEP patient has no doubts or concerns and totally understands what is going to happen, why, and any options they may have. Understanding the hierarchy of the family is imperative in understanding the functions of the family unit. With some familiarity with the different cultures in a given community, a medical professional will be able to ascertain who the head of the household is.

The head of the household differs from culture to culture, as such, “misunderstandings which include but are not limited to the involvement of the male in all aspects of health care for his wife and children; the assimilation of children into all aspects of life; female humility; the subordinate status of women; and the strong emphasis on traditional female role. (Abdoul and Abdoul, 2010). By defining who the head of the household is and giving them the respect they deserve will be paramount in a speedy recovery for the patient.

As the head of the household is identified, it is very important that they are included in all of the decisions made on behalf of the patient. If and when the controlling person is not readily available, all efforts should be exercised to contact that person. In rare life threatening conditions should medical personnel proceed without that persons consent, the head of the household should be given adequate time to discuss procedures with the patient should they require this. His/her decision should be respected when they decide what is appropriate for their family member.

Given the most pertinent information and options, the family can then make an informed decision and the respect of the hierarchy of the family has not been compromised. All diversities should be taken into consideration when caring for a patient. By understanding what importance the patient puts on their culture, the medical staff can better serve the patient. “Hospitals can be a source of stress and frustration for patients and their families, since they are most vulnerable when they are there and are placed at the mercy of values and beliefs not of their own. ” (Galanti, 2001).

Making a patient aware that medical staff understands and will do all that is possible to adhere to their cultural differences can only aid in providing the best health care possible. A care plan is always done for patients when they are admitted to the hospital. While formulating a care plan, the nurse should always consider and provide for the cultural differences of the individual. The care plan should be reviewed by all staff that participates in the care of the patient. The care plan should be discussed with the patient and family to assure that all aspects of their cultural practices have been addressed.

If this is not done, then the patient’s outcome can be greatly hampered. Cultural diversity in the medical field, at times, can be greatly hindered because of religious beliefs, language barriers, and the hierarchy of diverse cultures, and these have the propensity to affect the continuity of care for the patient. All aspects need to be considered to assure that the most efficient care be given on behalf of the patient.

References ABOUL-ENEIN, B. , & AHOUL-ENEIN, F. (2010). THE CULTURAL GAP DELIVERING HEALTH CARE SERVICES TO ARAB AMERICAN POPULATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(1), 20-23. Retrieved from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database Armada, A. , & Hubbard, M. (2010). Diversity in Healthcare: Time to Get REAL!. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 26(3), 3-17. Retrieved from EBSCO MegaFILE database. Black, P. (2010). Cultural and religious beliefs in stoma care nursing. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants, 4(4), 184-188. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database. Weaver, D. (2009). Respect the diversity and difference of individuals. Nursing & Residential Care, 11(12), 590-593. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.

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Cultural Diversity within Organizations

Addressing Cultural Diversity within Organizations Teg does non hold a diverseness direction plan or policy in topographic point. Cultural diverseness within organisations has been known to heighten productiveness and good inter-relationship between the employees. Examples of cultural diverseness are multicultural dialogue, communicating, direction every bit good as in other concern patterns such as enlisting. This […]

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