Dementia: Cerebrum and High Blood Pressure

DEMENTIA AWARNESS 1. Understand what dementia is 1. 1 Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia’ A syndrome due to disease of the brain, usually of a chronic progressive nature in which there are multiple disturbances of higher cognitive function. These include impairment of memory, thinking and orientation, learning ability, language and judgement. 1. 2 Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia The key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia are the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital, cerebrum lobe and the hippocampus.
Temporal lobe- responsible for vision,memory, language, hearing and learning Frontal lobe- responsible for decision making, problem solving, control behaviour and emotions Parietal lobe- responsible for sensory information from the body, also where letters are formed, putting things in order and spatial awareness. Occipital lobe- responsible for processing information related to vision Cerebrum lobe- is responsible for for the biggest part of the brain its role is memory, attention, thought and our consciousness, senses and movement.
Hippocampus- responsible for memory forming, organizing and storing and emotions 1. 3 Explain why depression, delirium and age-related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia Because they both manifest with similar symptoms. Depression coupled with age related memory impairment looks the same as dementia to the untrained eye. The difference is that depression delirium responds to treatment with anti depressants, once you get on top of the depression you can put age related memory loss into perspective.

If it is genuine dementia it won’t get any better. 2. Understand key features of theoretical models of dementia 2. 1 Outline the medical model of dementia The medical model focuses on the impairment as the problem and focuses on a cure, these may be dependency, restriction of choice, dis empowering and devaluing individuals 2. 2 Outline the social model of dementia This is personal centred, focusing on the rights of the individual, in turn empowering the individual, promoting independence, giving choice and looking at what the individual is able to do. . 3 Explain why dementia should be viewed as a disability Individuals who have dementia are not aware of requirements for living, they can forget to do the essential things that are vital. Taking medication,hygiene and even eating are often forgotten. They can get lost or hurt and not understand what is necessary to correct a situation. Individuals cannot act in the manner of a responsible adult which is why dementia should be viewed as a disability 3. Know the most common types of dementia and their causes 3. List the most common causes of dementia Alzheimer disease This is the most common cause of dementia, during the course of the disease the chemistry and structure of the brain changes, leading to the death of brain cells. Vascular dementia If the oxygen supply to the brain fails, brain cells may die, this can happen from a strokes or over time through series of small strokes Lewy body disease This form of dementia gets its name from tiny spherical structures that develop inside nerve cells, there presence in the brain cells leads to the degeneration of brain tissue. . 2 Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive condition, symptoms include minor memory problems, difficulty saying the right words, disorientation personality changes and behavioural changes Vascular dementia may develop suddenly and quickly, symptoms include memory loss depression, visual hallucinations, low attention p and periods of mental confusion.
Lewy bodies develop gradually and gets more severe over the years, symptoms include memory loss, visual hallucinations, delusions, muscle stiffness. 3. 3 Outline the risk factor’s for the most common causes of dementia The risk factor’s for Alzeheimers is age, family history and genes Vascular dementia is increasing age, history of heart attacks, strokes or mini strokes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes Lewy bodies is advanced age, it appears to affect more men than women, having a family member who’s had it and a unhealthy lifestyle 3. Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia The established prevalence rates for different types of dementia are 40-64yrs 1 in 1400 65-69yrs 1 in 100 70-79yrs 1 in 25 80+ 1 in 6 4. Understand factors relating to an individuals experience of dementia 4. 1 Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age, type of dementia, and level of ability and disability Depending on the form of dementia people’s ability and disability will be different. People with ementia may not necessarily always be forgetful, their memory may remain intact but their personality and behaviour could be noticeably changed. However the level of ability and disability depends on an individuals age and condition of dementia, people who are living with dementia in earlier age such as 60’s-70’s are less likely to be as dependable on others than people living with dementia at the age of over their 70’s-80’s. People also have different levels of stamina at different ages so their ability and disability may vary and the level of support they require will be varied as well. . 2 Outline the impact that the attitudes and behaviours of others may have on an individual with dementia People who suffer from dementia can feel excluded if people aren’t giving them enough time to finish there conservation or tasks, which can lead them to being treated differently and can cause more illness such has anger, depression and frustration , so therefore there is good combination of general awareness of the existence of dementia but poor detailed understanding of its causes, progression and implications tends to lead to inaccurate assumptions.

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New York University
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