Developmental Reading

“The Different Learning Styles of the Selected Freshmen Education Students at Villaflores College, Tanjay City Negros Oriental SY: 20011-2012” ____________________________________________________________ __________________ A Baby Thesis Presented to Mr. Percival T. Tolomia, M. A. ED In Partial Fulfillment of the requirement in ED. STRAT 8 (Developmental Reading October 2011 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Introduction We choose this topic because we want to know how the freshmen students cope up with their everyday lessons with their learning styles.

Recognizing which style is your preferred one is not to suggest that one is better than other, rather it serves to help you work out strategies when a certain teaching methods don’t suit your style and to challenge you to develop in all areas. Basically, once you identify your preferred style(s), take advantage of your strengths and work to develop your weaker areas. Each person has their own type of learning style. A learning style is a method in which each of us utilizes to better understand material.

A preferred learning style is a style in which the person can learn best, reflecting their strengths and weaknesses of the individual. In order to understand material we take it all in with our senses, through sight, sound, touch, smell or taste. Multiple Intelligence theory maintains that there are at least seven learning styles (“intelligences”): interpersonal, intra-personal, body/kinesthetic, visual/spatial, mathematical/logical, verbal/linguistic and musical/rhythmic (Lazear, D. 1991).

For the purposes of this paper I will simplify the seven categories into three main categories in which people best learn information: auditory, visual and tactile/kinesthetic. Most people possess the ability to use all three learning styles but learn best using one specific learning style. Statement of the Problem The study aimed to identify the different learning styles preferred by the selected Freshmen Education students of Villaflores College, Tanjay City for School Year 2011-2012. Specifically the study seeks the answer to the following questions: . What is the profile of our student/respondents in relation to: *age; *gender; *address; *size of the family; *educational attainment of parents; 2. What are the different learning styles used by the freshmen education students? 3. To what extent do the learning styles help the students cope up with their everyday lessons? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the learning styles of the students/respondents and their academic performance? Significance of the Study This work has significance to the following: Students.

If they know their learning styles and can articulate their needs, they can go on to address these needs with appropriate assistance. Teachers. When they identify key elements of individual learning styles, they can match instruction and materials with those individual differences providing students with a method for learning that can lead to their improved achievement and increased ability to exercise control over their own program. Moreover knowledge of learning styles would also enable them to assist students with a program that will fit the pupils learning styles strengths. Parents.

Parental influences are normally more accepted by students in their formative years, parent’s knowledge of their children’s learning styles would help them in the follow-up of their children’s learning styles. Department of Education (DepEd). The result of the study will provide DepEd the insights on how to improve teaching based on students individual learning styles. Researchers. They should further their queries on the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction so that students can be provided with opportunities to improve their academic performance. Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study was conducted in Villaflores College, Tanjay City with the freshmen Education students from the regular classes as respondent. Definition of Terms – Important terms in this study are defined either conceptually on operationally for a clearer understanding of its contents. Department of Education – The government agency tasked to give the basic education in the elementary, secondary and tertiary level. Freshmen Education Students – These refer to the students of Villaflores College enrolled in the Freshmen level in the Regular classes for the School Year 2011-2012.

Learning Styles – Refer to the different approaches or ways of learning. It is a student’s consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning, Villaflores College – A private school in Tanjay City. It is where the respondents of this study are enrolled in. Cognitive Theory – suggests that individuals process information differently on the basis of either acquired or inherent traits. Many researchers investigated the variables of field dependence and independence, global and analytic, simultaneous and successive, and left-right-preferred processing.

As they conducted studies to determine the student’s characteristics that appeared to be more or less responsive to environmental THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY The concepts and theories gathered based on readings from books and the internet are used as basis for determining the theoretical framework of the study. Learning styles are biologically and developmentally set of personal characteristics that make the identical types of instruction affective for some students and ineffective to other.

Though initially conceived as an outgrowth of practitioner’s observations this learning styles model traces its roots to two distinct learning theories. Cognitive Style Theory Cognitive Theory suggests that individuals process information differently on the basis of either acquired or inherent traits. Many researchers investigated the variables of field dependence and independence, global and analytic, simultaneous and successive, and left-right-preferred processing.

As they conducted studies to determine the student’s characteristics that appeared to be more or less responsive to environmental emotional sociological and psychological stimuli, they found out that selected variables often clustered together. Indeed relationships appeared to exist between learning persistently, in quiet and bright light, in formal setting arrangements and with little or no intake, and being and analytic left processor (Dunn, Bruno, Sklar and Beaudry, 1990); (Dunn, Cavanaugh, Elerle and Zenhausern, 1982).

Similarly, young people who often requested breaks while learning and who learned more, easily in soft lighting, with sound in the environment, seated formally, and with snacks, often revealed high scores as right processors. Field dependence versus field independence correlated in many ways with global versus an analytic cognitive and, again, seemed to elicit the same clustering as right- and left- preferences students did. In some cases, more attributes allied themselves with global/right tendencies than with their counterparts.

Thus, although global/rights often enjoyed working with peers and using their tactual strengths, analytic/left did not reveal the reverse nor did the sociological or perceptual characteristics evidences consistent similarities. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard Garner conceived the theory of multiple intelligences. He identified eight (8) different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability. The types of multiple intelligences are: Visual or Spatial Intelligence (Picture Smart) – learning visually and organizing ideas spatially. Seeing concepts in action in order to understand them.

The ability to “see” things in one’s mind in planning to create a product or solve a problem. This type of intelligence is sensitive of representing ideas visually, creating mental images, noticing visual details drawing and sketching . And has the ability to create visually and visualize accurately. Verbal or Linguistic (Word Smart) – learning through the spoken and written word. This intelligence was always valued in the traditional classroom and in the traditional assessments of intelligence and achievement. This type of intelligence is sensitive of speaking, writing, listening and reading. And has the ability to speak effectively.

Mathematical or Logical (Number Smart or Logic Smart) – learning through reasoning and problem solving. Also highly valued in the traditional classroom, where students were asked to adopt to logically sequenced delivery of instruction. This type of intelligence is sensitive of finding patterns, making calculations forming and testing hypothesis, using scientific method and deductive and inductive reasoning. And has the ability to work effectively with numbers and reason effectively. Bodily or Kinesthetic (Body Smart) – learning through interaction with one’s environment. This intelligence is not the domain of “overly active” learners.

It promotes understanding through concrete experience. This type of intelligence is sensitive to activities requiring strength, speed, flexibility, hand-eye coordination and balance. And has the ability to use the hands to fix or create and use the body expressively. Musical (Music Smart) – learning through patterns, rhythms and music. This includes not only auditory learning, but the identification of patterns through all the senses. This type of intelligence is sensitive to listening, singing, playing an instrument. And has the ability to create and analyze music. Intrapersonal (Self Smart) – learning through feelings, values and attitudes.

This is deductively affective component of learning through which students place value on what they learn and take ownership for their learning. This type of intelligence is sensitive to setting goals, assessing personal abilities and liabilities and monitoring one’s own thinking. And has the ability to meditate, reflect, exhibits self-discipline, maintain composure, and get the most out of oneself. Interpersonal (People Smart) – learning through interaction with others. Not the domain of children who are simply “talkative” or “overly social”. This intelligence promotes collaboration and working cooperatively with others.

This type of intelligence is sensitive to noticing and responding to other people’s feelings and personalities. And has the ability to work with people and help people identify and overcome problems. Naturalist (Nature Smart) – learning through classification, categories and hierarchies. The naturalist intelligence picks up on subtle differences in meaning. It is not simply the study of nature; it can be used in all areas of study. This type of intelligence is sensitive to identify and classify living things and natural objects. And has the ability to analyze ecological and natural situations and data and to work in natural settings.

Existential (Spirit Smart) – learning is seeing the “big picture” “Why are we here? ” “What is my role in the world? ” “What is my place in my family, school and community? ” This intelligence seeks connections to real world understanding and application of new learning. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY The study assessed the preferred learning styles among the freshmen college students in Villaflores College. The study examined the profile of the students respondents and the significant relationship of the preferred learning styles and their profile.

The variables and their relationship are shown in the conceptual framework. The diagram further shows two interactive arrows toward the socio-economic variable and learning styles strengths and weaknesses to show dynamism and interrelationship of the different components. The identified learning styles strength or weaknesses will be the basis for an enrichment plan for teaching strategies compatible to the learning styles of the freshmen college students of Villaflores College. The enrichment plan will address the teaching strategies compatible to the learning styles of the students.

Review of Related Literature and Studies Related Literature Everybody has strengths, although a parents strengths tend to differ from those of the other parents, from those of their offspring and from those of their own parents. Thus, mother and father often learn differently from each other and also from their children. Nevertheless, parents commonly insist that children study and do their homework as they themselves did when they were young. That approach is not likely to be effective for at least some of the siblings because within the same family, different individuals usually learn in diametrically opposite ways.

Learning style then is the way by which each learner begins to concentrate on, process and retain new and difficult information. That interaction occurs differently for every individual. To identify a person’s learning style pattern, it is necessary to examine each individual’s multidimensional characteristics to determine what is most likely to trigger each student’s concentration, maintain it, respond to his or her natural processing style, and lead to a long-term memory (Dunn, Dunn and Perrin, 1994). There are many models to identifying learning styles.

One of these is the widely known learning style model of Dunn and Dunn. This learning style uses the three main sensory receivers- Vision, Auditory, and Kinesthetic to determine the dominant learning style of the learners. Its main strength is that it is quite simple, which appeals to a lot of people. The learner may prefer one style of learning for one task, and a combination of others for one task. However, one or more of these styles are dominant. This dominant style defines the best way for a person to learn and perceive information. Some hints for indentifying the different learning styles are: . Visual Learners. These types of learners can learn fast when they see, watch and observed what has to be learned. They easily visualize faces and places by using their imagination. They seldom get lost in new surroundings. They learn better with charts, demonstrations and other visual materials. They pay better attention to lectures if they watch them. b. Auditory Learners. These types of learners do better and can retain information by listening to lectures, tapes and discussions. They remember information by forming the sound of words rather than by reading silently. . Kinesthetic Learners. These learners do best while touching and moving. They tend to lose concentration if there is little or no external stimulation of movement. When listening to lectures they may want to take notes. When reading, they like to scan the material first and focus on the details. They like to draw pictures, diagrams or doodle things. Related Studies One goal of educational research is to discover a method of instruction which enables teachers to teach students effectively and efficiently in the classroom.

Researchers have faintly provided knowledge on how children perceive, interact with and respond to the learning environment. But, within the educational reform arena of the 1980’s, a renewed interest styles emerged. Ebert in 1994 conducted a study learning style profile of vocational students. A multi-stage, cluster sampling of students enrolled in vocational education program in Pennsylvania was identified. The Learning Style Profile developed and distributed by the NASSP (1986) was administered to 580 students enrolled in randomly selected vocational education programs.

Learning Styles Profiles of students for each program and a composite profile were established. Learning styles of vocational education students enrolled in these selected programs were found to be similar to that of the national population. The popular notion that the vocational education students differ from non-vocational education students based on their inaccurate learning style. If differences exist between vocational and non-vocational education students then the difference is the result of something other than learning style.

Students enrolled vocational education programs could be taught using the same methods and with the same expectations as students enrolled in non-vocational education programs. Teachers should employ methods of instructions which address a variety of learning styles and be prepared to assist students to use knowledge of learning styles to facilitate learning. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design The study utilized the descriptive method of research. It described the different learning styles of students. It further examined present conditions as far as learning styles and profiles of the student/respondents are concerned.

Research Respondents There were a total of 164 freshmen education students who serve as respondents of these study, 116 students from Bachelor of Elementary Education and 48 from Bachelor of Secondary Education. Fortunately, the researchers were able to retrieve all the questionnaire forms within the allotted p of time. Research Environment Villaflores College is located in Legaspi St. Tanjay City with the land area of 3 hectares. There are more than 8 buildings with beautiful flowers around which provide a strong facade of greenery and foliage.

Research Instruments The VAK Learning Style Self-Assessment Questionnaire was used as the research instrument in gathering of data with some modifications. It contains two major parts: (1) Profile of freshmen college students. It asked for the respondent’s age, gender, family monthly income, size of the family, available learning media at home , and parents’ educational attainment; (2) Preferred learning styles of the freshmen education students. Research Procedure The researcher asked permission from Mr. Percival Tolomia Ed. Strat 8 instructor to conduct this study.

After the permission was granted the researchers started the admission of the questionnaires to the freshmen education students in Villaflores College. After retrieving the questionnaire forms, the researchers examined the raw data and made necessary preparations and tabular presentations. Statistical Treatment of Data The preparation of the data matrices was done using the following statistical tools, viz: 1. Sloven’s Formula In sampling, the formula for getting the number of respondents is: n= _______ N_______ 1+ Ne2 Where: n= is the sample size

N= is the population size e= is the margin of error 2. Percentage To convert the raw data into percentile score, frequencypercentage was used. The formula is: P= __f__ x 100% N Where: P= Percentage F= frequency N= number of items 3. Weighted Mean To determine the extent of preference of the pupils’ learning styles, the weighted mean was used. The formula reads as follows: Xw = _? (xw)_ ?w Where: XW (read:x bar sub w) is the symbol for the weighted mean. X is the value term W is the weight ? (xw) is the sum of the products of X and W ?w is the sum of weights

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