Electric Vehicles In India
Pollution in the environment is a major problem nowadays. The emission of toxic gases from motor vehicles is the main reason for air pollution. To reduce the effects of these emissions we should use or adapt electric vehicles as soon as possible and we should promote them as much as we can and make them use all over the world. Many countries have already promoted the use of e-vehicles instead of motor vehicles and as of 2016 those countries have a high stock of e-vehicles in the world although, India is falling behind its counterparts. As we all should aware of that out of 20 most polluted cities in the world,15 cities are in India which is a very big ratio and sad truth. So, the Indian government has decided to set a target of 100% e-mobility by 2030. India begins its e-vehicle journey in November 2017 by the stationing of 100 e-vehicle units and 4 charging stations in a city.
Electric vehicles, unlike petrol and diesel vehicles, uses one or more electric motors for propulsion. Electric vehicles have a battery that is charged with the help of electricity supply. After that, the electric energy is stored and is used to power the electric motor. There are many types of electric vehicles such as electric cars, electric bikes, electric buses, electric scooters, etc, however, amongst all, manufacturing and putting the electric vehicles on road is the imagination to make India pollution free and saving the precious petroleum. There are 7 leading manufacturers of electric vehicles. These are:
Tesla, BMW, Nissan, Ford, Volkswagen, Kia, and Chevrolet.
There are mainly 3 types of electric vehicles which are:
· Battery Electric vehicle (BEVs)
· Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
· Hybrid Electric vehicles (HEVs)
Battery electric vehicles are also called BEVs, are fully electric vehicles as they run entirely on batteries with rechargeable batteries with no gasoline engine available. Electricity in this type of vehicle is stored in onboard batteries which are charged by plugging into a powered grid. The batteries then, provide power to the electric motors.
These types of vehicles do not emit any type of harmful emissions that are caused by traditional gasoline-powered vehicles.
These can be classified by Level 1 EV charging, Level 2 EV charging, and Level 3(DC Fast charging).
Level 1 charging can be done at your home or the workplace as it uses a standard household(120V) outlet to plug into an e-vehicle and will take about 8 hours to charge an e-vehicle for about 75-80 miles.
Level 2 charging requires a specialized station that can provide 240V power to charge an e-vehicle and will take about 4 hours to charge an e-vehicle for about 75-80 miles of range. These types of charging can be done at workplaces or public charging stations.
Level 3 charging(DC fast charging) is the currently fast charging solution in the EV market today. These types of fast chargers are found at dedicated EV charging stations and will take only 30 minutes to charge a battery for about 90 miles of range.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)-
Plug-in hybrid vehicles are also called PHEVs, these types of vehicles can run on batteries as well as gasoline. These have rechargeable battery packs that provides 20-80 km(depending on the model) of driving before a gasoline engine turns on for any longer trips. PHEVs can run longer driving distances as compared to BEVs as PHEVs can operate using a gasoline engine or battery.
PHEVs are often cheaper to operate and maintainence is very low than traditional gasoline or diesel vehicles.