Analyze the The Baroque Era Essay

The Baroque era was an age of brilliant progression of knowledge. It was also known for the age of the scientific discoveries of Galileo and Newton, and advances in math of Descartes, Newton, and Leibnitz. The baroque time period included production of some of the greatest music of all time. Baroque era of music changed the way music is written today, it also has a very distinct emotional tone and style. Baroque meaning odd pearl was a turning point in the history of music. The Baroque period of history is between the 1600’s and the 1750’s.

The baroque period presented a more harmonic and dramatic focus full of what people called extravagant and unnatural music. It has influenced today’s music by the birth of today’s modern orchestra. Also with the various music pieces written for solo’s. From the baroque period came opera’s, concertos and sonatas. Baroque music aroused from composer Arcangelo Corelli who influenced many of the composers during the time period. Like Georg Friederich Handel who was born in Halle (Germany), on February 23rd, 1685, just a month before JS Bach was born in Eisenach, not so far to the south.

Handel’s father intended him for the law, but his own musical talents soon prevailed. Following his studies in Germany, Handel went to Italy where he spent more than three years, in Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice. In Rome he studied with Corelli, and no doubt met and exchanged ideas with a number of other Italian composers. So as you can see the idea of baroque music spread all over Europe, Not just one individual area. It was a great rise in music history. The baroque era of music is very exquisite and dramatic.

It definitely differs from the music before its time. Not until the baroque period did people do the concept of melody and harmony. Its very distinct musical tone was important in the baroque era. The baroque era consisted of two main vocals(bass, soprano) which usually were the melody, Unfretted instruments, a harpsichord and whatever the composer chose to add. Baroque music was rather emotional. It created musical notations such as forte, allegro, adagio, etc. The characteristics of the baroque period were very dramatic, and somewhat romantic.

Different styles of baroque vocal music are recitative, aria, bel canto, and castrato. Other styles of music would be toccata which is an instrumental piece that alternates between contrapuntal passages, prelude and fugue. During the baroque era there was political and religious tension. At the time the Catholic Church was still a big part of the government, it was also a very big patron of art. The tension between the church and the courts affected everyone. As well as music itself.

The Catholic Church was undergoing a “counter-reformation”. The church wanted as much realism as possible therefore creating the baroque period. The Catholic Church wanted as much realism as possible because they wanted to engage more common people. They also wanted one to be fascinated and devoted as well as connected to the Virgin Mary and god. The church discovered that if they used church like scenes in theatre and opera’s could be used to deepen ones devotion towards the church.

So that way even uneducated common people could understand The Baroque era revolutionized the way music was interpreted. It influenced today’s music, It brought up new styles of music like opera’s or concerto’s and many things during the time affected music. “The age of reason” really progressed music, science, art, and people too. It brought precision to the world. Something that we still have today. All the overly exaggerated feeling to music. The dramatic feeling of movement of energy. All was born in the baroque period.

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The Prohibition Era and the Creation of NASCAR

NASCAR is the world famous acronym for “National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing.”NASCAR racing stands prominently in the front line of the American sports today. NASCAR is an authorizing body which arranges several types of racing all over the country the country. The most famous ones are Craftsman Truck Series, Sprint Cup Series and Nationwide Series.[1]


The creation of NASCAR traces back its roots in history. The creation of NASCAR traces back to its roots deep in the history. It goes back to1794 almost a century before the first automobile came into being. It was the time of “Whiskey Rebellion”. This rebellion was actually a protest by frontier farmers against a federal tax levied on whiskey. Despite paying the tax they built secret stills, prepared and started supplying their product secretly.[2] There began the origin of NASCAR. In this paper this history is presented decade wise.

Decade 1(1920-1933)

On 16th January 1920 the “Volstead Act” was imposed all over United States. The manufacture, sale, export and import of alcohol were banned under this act.[3]

In the Prohibition period of the 1920’s and early 30’s, the underground marketing of whiskey, or “moonshine running” began to rise. Moonshine is a primitive term in English for illegal transportation of liquor, and gradually gave birth to moonshine/ moonshine runners or rum runners. These moonshiners were commonly known as “Bootleggers”. These people who confidentially used to supply whiskey from their underground stills illegally to hundreds of markets all over the Southeast. Their t high speeds driving at night because of the risk of police encounter was quite dangerous. It gradually turned into race competitions between the bootleggers which usually resulted in lose of life or imprisonment.

When bootlegging developed, the bootleggers started to race among themselves to check the speed of their cars. They used to have these races on Sunday afternoons and then the same car was used to smuggle moonshine at Sunday night. Unavoidably, these races and moonshine cars became extremely popular in general public. It even continued after the end of the prohibition era in 1933 on repeal of the Volstead Act.[4]

Decade 2 (1938-1950):

In 1938 William H.G. Bill France held a race on Daytona Beach, Florida and NASCAR came into being. With the beginning of World War II brought stock car racing came to an end but it again grew after the war but there were no appropriate rules and the proper organization. Soon Bill realized the importance of growth of stock car racing and consequently to start a formal official organization the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) in 1947.

In the supervision of Bill France Senior and afterwards his son, Bill France Junior NASCAR has turned into a rapidly growing sport in the 1990s.The first race sanctioned by NASCAR held on the beach course at Daytona in February 1948. The next year NASCAR began the racing division of NASCAR called “Strictly Stock” division, now identified as the Winston Cup Series. The first race by “Strictly Stock” contributed a $5,000 purse and held in southern Florida on a two-mile circular course followed by150-mile race at the three-quarter-mile Charlotte Speedway. The first NASCAR race on newly made Darlington International Speedway was held in 1959 in South Carolina.[5]The NASCAR is flourishing since then till today

Current Decade

As compared to the last decade NAS CAR racing has achieved the fore front of spectator sports in America, both live and in television telecasts. “The Fiftieth Season” of NASCAR was celebrated I 1998 which received great public attendance and an immense coverage by the media which clearly shows the great development and popularity of NASCAR not only in United States but across the world s well.[6]


After going through the history of creation and growth of NASCAR, the link between the prohibition era in the United States and the creation of NASCAR has been vividly depicted. The role played by the bootleggers/ rumrunners/moonshiners is inevitable in the origin of NASCAR. Certain schools of thoughts in United States still assume them as heroes who fought against injustice and undue taxation no matter they were treated as criminals or smugglers. They believe that America was built by them.[7]

Neal Thompson has written a book “Driving with the Devils” about the moonshiners. Charles Danoff reviews the book and says that people may find “Driving with the Devil”over sympathizing the southern bootleggers regardless the fact that they were criminals anyhow. But without this deep sympathy the story could never be told. The author treats Bill France as a dictator.

Danoff is of the opinion that France family may tell this story in any manner they want, but its an undeniable fact that NASCAR did not came into being in 1940s as its website says. Its origin was conceived sometimes two decade earlier.[8]



 Accessed March 10, 2008

The Chicago Bootleggers: The Hollow Men of NASCAR from Accessed March 10, 2008

 The History of NASCAR

 Accessed March 10, 2008

What is Car Racing Accessed March 10, 2008

Ziewacz Lawrence E.The Country Music- NASCAR Connection. Country Music 2001, Charles K.Wolfe and James E. Akenson

[1] What is NASCAR?
[2]The History of NASCAR
[3] Rumrunners and Prohibition
[4] The History of NASCAR
[5] The History of NASCAR

[6] The Country Music-NASCAR Connection
[7] Rumrunners,Moonshiners,Bootleggers(
[8] The Chicago Sports Review: Bootleggers: The Hollow Men of NASCAR

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In an era where magazines are failing, how does FHM maintain its audience?

The origins of FHM magazine date as far back to 1985 in the United Kingdom where the magazine began publication. FHM was first published under the name “For Him” and changed its title to FHM in 1994 when Emap Consumer Media bought the magazine, although the full “For Him” Magazine continues to be printed on the spine of each issue. Circulation of this magazine was expanded to newsagents quarterly by spring 1987, after the emergence of a similar magazine Loaded which was regard by them to be the blueprint for the lad’s mag genre. For Him Magazine’ firmed up its approach to compete with expanding market by introducing a sports supplement.

The magazine is published monthly and changed its name to FHM this being the abbreviated version of ‘For Him Magazine’ this is probably to gain the audience attention as they can print these letters bigger and bolder which a generic convention that FHM uses. It has dominated the men’s market around 1997 according to ABC magazine results where A. Crawford presented an article where she collected information on FHM magazine sales, FHM managed to overcome all other magazines and reached over 600,000 sales a month which was a 76% increase on last year which was 365,000” This shows FHM after just over 10 years have managed to overcome and compete with other magazine and are still managing to do so in the present day, this suggest that FHM is in high demand and the audience are genuinely interesting in the magazine. Also FHM began to expand internationally and now sells magazines in 26 different countries.

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FHM was sold as part of the publishing company sale, from EMAP to German company, Bauer Media Group in February 2008, which is owned by the Bauer family. This magazine in the genre of is an lad’s magazines, they look so to sell their magazine to a target audience of men the age of 18-35, predominantly males belonging to A, B and broad C socio-economic classes with an interest for everything and anything sexy, funny and relevant to a men’s lifestyle, for example hobbies, and sports.

According to a Synovate Media Atlas survey, “This magazine has over 1 million readers monthly across all socio-economic classes; this figure is based on a survey carried out by Synovate Media Atlas in the 2009-2010 year. ” FHM has had other successes with the e-media platform by introducing fhm. com. This website version of the magazine has bought more users in and maintaining a large audience, this proves by the mass of audience that FHM is actually selling magazines and gaining revenue. –analyse website, analyse magazine FHM makes their revenue through the cover price of the magazine which is ?3. 0 monthly and through yearly subscriptions offered to readers, and their revenue is mostly produced by the adverts within the magazine.

In 2002 according to New York Business Wire, “FHM has revenue gain of an outstanding 105% over last year, in addition the magazine ends 2002 with the largest issue of the year. ” Over 10 years ago FHM managed to increase their revenue through selling magazines and selling advertisement space, the adverts must have related to the audience for them to keep buying the magazine therefore keeping the audience interested in the content of the magazine.

Also because of the substantial increase of revenue in 2002 this put FHM in good stead to further develop their magazine to maintain the audience. According to Audit Bureau of circulation (ABC) in Jan-Jun 2008 ‘FHM continue sales of 280,392 and remains the bestselling magazine in print, online and overseas, it outsells GQ, MAXIM and LOADED. In April 2008, FHM witnessed record levels of traffic on FHM. com culminating in an ABCe of over 2million users. FHM now numbers 31 international editions worldwide. ’

According to these figures FHM have found a way to gain money through magazine sales, also FHM have found an effective way to use their created space in their magazine and selling that space to advertisers. This will help FHM gain revenue, as advertisements are important for advertisers because they also need to get their product recognised then there will always be space filled within FHM. This can be useful for the magazine as they can choose to publish articles that match the advertisement for example an article on fitness and sport and advertisement for a new football boot may follow.

This allows the Advertisement Company and FHM to work together. This means this is an effective way of earning extra money with the magazine than just sales. – Specific evidence from mag Also FHM have a e-media platform, fhm. com. This has become increasingly popular with the consumers as they can choose what they want to read and in website form can hold mass information, FHM have created this media platform so they can give exclusivity to the audience and because this platform has different features from just a magazine this will keep the audience from getting bored.

FHM has also released magazines editions worldwide this will allow for diverse mass audience and will help FHM’s sales. – Why do people buy and read magazine We can analyse FHM by using the Laura Mulvey’s male gaze theory, whereby she theorised that consumers are largely masculine and that women is controlled by the male gaze. This idea is that women’s body is displayed and makes the men the voyeur.

FHM uses attractive photos of women by portraying them as sexually alluring and according to this theory would make the audience experience erotic pleasure from looking at the pictures of women. This attracts the male audience using the male gaze theory. One of the reasons why FHM appeals to the audience; “Sales of early titles such as Arena and Esquire were rapidly outstripped by title’s such as Loaded and FHM, as images of the ‘new man’ were replaced by an emphasis on more ‘laddish’ forms of masculinity, associated with drinking, sport and sex. Jackson et al, 2001. This quote supports the modernism theory as FHM is saying that men are moving forward and is supporting the progression of different forms of a man’s masculinity, this suggests men are buying FHM because they are portraying a better element of a man’s masculinity than other magazines and because of this it is appealing to the male audience and the content provided has more relevance to the audience.

The male audience is attracted by the idea of a masculine lifestyle is about drinking, sport and sex which FHM offers them, this attraction is one of the reasons why this magazine has had successful and maintaining sales for a sustained period of time. FHM have many articles that improve a man’s body shape by training and giving the audience different advice and tips to help them they also provide dietary tips to go alongside.

This article appeals to the aspirer’s as they want to improve themselves and aspire to a better body. Search google “FHM and media theory” The User and Gratifications theory suggest that users proactively search for media that will not only meet a given need but enhance knowledge, social interaction and diversion. This theory interprets the audience for actively integrating media into their own lives. It implies that the FHM compete against other information sources for the viewer’s gratifications.

Using this theory, can explain how articles FHM produce appeal to the audience, using the article mentioned before, according to this theory the audience actively takes in the article and integrates it into their lives for example articles that involve fitness work to improve themselves and articles that involve tips to improve different aspects of life. With this particular article about improving your body shape and therefore masculinity this gives knowledge to the audience and this can create diversion from their everyday life by improving themselves.

This is the audience actively integrating media into their own lives and is supported by Blumler and Katz’s work whereby they studied why people use particular media, and developed the users and gratifications theory. “FHM highlights and attempts to commodify aspirational aspects of a men’s lifestyle as a way of appealing to advertisers and also simultaneously trying to speak directly to readers as an authentic voice” this magazine can be generalised by using the hypodermic needle theory as they inject and portray how a men’s lifestyle should be and explain ways of getting there. The success of FHM was dependant on how this subject was addressed, commodifying men’s gender anxieties through editorial material that provides useful advice in a witty and accessible manner, often using ironic mode of address to avoid the charge of being sad or taking things seriously. ” FHM offers the audience Personal Identity, this magazine shows and portrays how a men’s lifestyle should be.

The consumers will act on this information and will let this magazine shape their own lives for example “Get a body like this with this diet” this article would be aimed at reformers that would like to make their body better also the magazine would offer this article and mention that there would be a follow up article in next month’s article, this would make the consumers buy the next issue therefore increasing FHM total monthly sales and maintaining their revenue.

Also this magazine will have articles on celebrities training regime this could provide the audience with surveillance and would be able to gain an insight into their lives this would also help maintain sales and would gratify the audience.

In FHM there is a main dominant stereotype about men, those there appearances and attitudes are masculine and FHM is very forward with this idea, they show men doing exercise with good strong body’s and the images they use are masculine portraying this dominate stereotype, the aspirers and reformers of the audience will act on FHM’s ideas of a man’s masculinity and will aspire to be there idea of a new man therefore making the consumers continually buy this magazine each month.

We can analytically investigate FHM by using the Pluralist model. The pluralist model argues that there is diversity in society and therefore there is also choice, because the audience is diverse with different views the media is influenced by society because the media need to please the audience they will try and reflect the values and beliefs that are predominant in society.

So FHM reflects the predominant masculine man and try to portray a typical man’s lifestyle, FHM stereotypes men to be very masculine, good in bed, happy in relationships, witty, considerate and skilled at all things. FHM shows these things in their magazines to captivate the audience and show them what they want to see, according to previous sales figures FHM seem to be doing this and have been maintaining it and therefore gaining revenue as well as pleasing the audience.

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The Laws in the Reconstruction Era and the Civil Rights Movement

The Laws in the Reconstruction Era and the Civil Rights Movement The civil rights movement that started and grew through the years following the Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954 and with the help of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Patterson, 2001) marked an important period that accomplished more than ending segregation […]

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Modernism vs. the era of realism in art history

Modernism in art history is used to refer to art forms that according to Witcombe (2000) date back roughly from 1860 to 1970, starting with the paintings of Édouard Manet in the 1860s. The issue of historical dating or forms in art history is a debated one, but this paper will not undertake debates relating […]

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Baroque Era and Rock Music

Baroque Era and Rock Music To understand the correlation between Rock music and the Baroque Era, one must look more in-depth towards each culture’s history and social norms. The Baroque Era’s musical style was prevalent during 1600 – 1750. It can be described as a time when the music went hand in hand with the […]

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British Restoration Era English Literature

London in the age of Goldsmith was entirely different from the London as we know today. Great social, political and economical changes were in the air when Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer was enacted. These changes created a turning point of fortune of many families there by making some impoverished and many others prosper to become one among the middle class families of England. As a result, marriages and love affairs, instead of being the union of two people, the man and woman, both physically and mentally, it became union of money, land and titles.

Hence the decreasing of wealth in the rural, old and titled families and an increase in the wealth in newly affluent commercial urban areas brought about various marriages of children from titled families, with those of untitled, cash-rich but land-poor commercial families. This balance is what Goldsmith tries to drive home in his famous play She Stoops to Conquer. Moreover, “the play also offers three types of marriage. One possibility: a loveless, parentally-enforced marriage, as that arranged by Mrs. Hardcastle between Tony and Constance.

Another option: marriage for love, but against parental wishes, as seen in Hastings’s plans for eloping with Constance. Finally, the best solution, compromise between parent and child, as in Kate’s marriage with Marlow — a marriage based on affection but also sanctioned by paternal authority. ” Schmidt, Passionate love existed definitely, but it was not directly linked to marriage. Love in those times is well explicated by Goldsmith through his varied characters as represented in the play.

To start with, we have Mr. Hardcastle who loves everything that is “old”, including his wife. He is a loving husband who loves his wife most intensely in spite of the fact that there is a lot of difference in their natures. He is a very home loving person as we see his wife complaining every now and then that they are not frequenting London to polish up their manners and acquire knowledge of the latest fashions. It is truly because of him that their life goes on uneventfully. He represents the gentle man of the society at that time.

His good nature and generosity alone bring the two love stories to a happy end and the mistakes of the night are crowned with merry-making in the morning. Mrs. Hardcastle, greedy, self-centered, with no regard for the feeling, likes and dislikes of others, sees love and marriage only in terms of monetary wealth. She truly represents the attitude of love and money of those times in the so-called aristocratic families. To retain her orphan niece’s (Constance Neville) fortune in the form of jewellery in the family, she tries to get her married with her son, Tony Lumpkin, who is a person who cannot be spoiled more.

She does not consider at all, that he is unworthy of his cousin and that he himself dislikes her and wants to marry another woman. Blinded by her greed and her infatuation for her son, she courts Constance on behalf of her son and tries her best to unite them in holy wedlock. The result is that she loses both, the jewellery and her niece. Her portrayal makes explicit the fact that women of her age in those days tended to be cruel mothers who never paid any respect to either the romantic or the ordinary feelings of their children if they did not have a monetary significance.

Marlowe represents the well-to-do families of the day who thinks that in order to prove his worth he has to travel long and wide and thus understand more about manhood. He is the kind of man whom ladies in those ages are after. ‘Manhood’ is just in his thoughts not deeds as we see him shy and moody in the company of ladies of higher rank and status. In keeping with the age, for him too marriage is more related to social positions and monetary affairs than love.

That is why he rejects Kate when he is still mistaking her for a simple barmaid instead of a lady: “But to be plain with you, the difference of our birth, fortune and education makes an honourable connection impossible; and I can never harbour a thought of seducing simplicity that trusted in my honour, or bringing ruin upon one whose only fault was being too lovely. ” (p. 42). Whatever be his shortcomings, Kate falls in love with him as he satisfies all the demands that women of that age sought in a man. Hence his drawbacks are easily forgotten and even if there is any left, Kate resolves to cure him of that.

His character develops in due course of the play and becomes worthy of Kate who has discerned his potential capacity to become a genuine love. No doubt, he represents the typical middle class man who gives equal regard to money, love and good manners. As a foil to him, we have Hastings, a well-dressed young man of considerable physical charms. He is presented as the most romantic and the most impractical man who has led an easy comfortable life like Marlow, but is not at all have a dual character like him. His love for Constance is true, deep and sincere.

He loves her only for herself, and no mercenary conditions weigh with him. He presses her to elope with him leaving behind her fortune for his love is not tainted by monetary things. Their love affair can be said as the most straight forward one but we see that too as being conditioned by money. As Mrs. Hardcastle is the keeper of Neville’s jewels, to get back her wealth, Constance should marry the person whom she pleases, unless the person refuses. It is to keep the money in the family itself that she forces her son to marry Constance. But Constance and Hastings proclaim their love several times disregarding the money.

During a conversation that both hold, Miss Neville states she would rather marry him once she owns all her jewels so that they can secure their future: “The instant they (jewels) are put into my possession you shall find me ready to make them and myself yours”. But Hastings exclaims: “Perish the baubles! Your person is all I desire” (p. 19). Even when the young lady assures that “in the moment of passion, fortune may be despised, but it ever produces a lasting repentance” Hastings insists on letting their feelings flow: “Perish fortune.

Love and contempt will increase what we possess beyond a monarch’s revenue. Let me prevail” (p. 56). Kate Hardcastle is a lover who rises to the occasion whenever such a situation arises. She is presented as vivacious, young and very inventive. Instead of waiting meekly to make her lover change to a bold person, she takes things into her hands. If she remains inactive, she will lose Marlow. Hence she throws all her false modesty to the wind and decides to win a husband even at the cost of some maidenly modesty and delicacy.

She chases and courts instead of being chased and courted. As her foil is presented Constance Neville, who is straight forward, sensible and determined. In her pretence of love to Tony to satisfy her aunt, her stooping is moral and not merely social as that of Kate. “She Stoops to Conquer is a beautifully constructed play where love conquers all, despite the combined efforts of a greedy woman, her inept son and an unfortunate case of ‘pedestalisation of women’ in the young male lead! ”. Hence in the play we see people loving and marrying for several reasons; for love, for money or just to follow patterns of the existing society.

Works Cited:

  1. Henderson, Catherine, http://www. cops. org. uk/reviews/she_stoops. htm. Schmidt, Arnold
  2. Jeffares, Harman A. , Goldsmith’s ‘She Stoops to Conquer’, Macmillan Co. Ltd, Great Britain, 1966. Wood R. J. , ‘She Stoops to Conquer’, Coles Publishing Company, Canada, 1968.
Writing Quality

Grammar mistakes

F (55%)


A (100%)

Redundant words

F (54%)




D (60%)

Total mark


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