Rocket and Evolution

History of Rockets Our time there has been an evolution in our history of rockets. It has been one man-kinds greatest invention for thousands of years. Rockets date back to 400 B. C in the city Tarentum from a roman writer named Aulus Gellius as he tells a story of a Greek, named Archytas. Archytas used his invention to amuse and baffle the people by flying a wooden pigeon using steam to propel the bird suspended off wires.

Couple three hundred years later after the invention of Archytas flying pigeon another Greek, Hero of Alexandria invented a something similar rocket device called an aeolipile, also using steam as gas to make it rise off the ground. Hero described using the device by mounting a sphere on top of a water kettle, as the fire below the kettle, turned the water into steam, making the gas travel through the pipes to the sphere. On too two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere which allowed the gas to escape, and that so gave trust to the sphere causing it to rotate.

It is still unclear when the first rockets appeared. There have been stories, of such rocket type inventions from time to time through records of various cultures. Could be that the first true rockets could of came from anywhere. Chinese records have indicated that in the first century A. D, reportedly used gunpowder. To create explosives for religious festivals, using bamboo tubes and adding the gunpowder to make it propel. Later on the Chinese began experimenting with the tubes and attaching them to arrows launching them and making them explode, this making the first rocket.

The date reporting the first true use of rockets was in 1232. During this time there was a war between the Chinese and Mongols in the battle of kai-keng, the Chinese repelled the invasion using a bombardment of “arrows of flying fire” said kai-keng. The rocket was a tube containing gunpowder on one-half, and the other a long stick. As soon as the powder was lighted it launched using the stick as a guidance flying through the air hitting its target. All through the 13th to the 15th centuries there were many reports of rocket experiments all the way through Europe.

As in England a monk named Roger Bacon worked on increasing the range of the rockets. In France, Jean Froissart found a technique to make the flight of the rocket by launching those using tubes. Froissart idea was the forerunner of the modern bazooka. Not only were rockets used for weapons of war, but for a firework display. A German fireworks maker, Johann Schmilap inventor of the “step rocket” it was a rocket designed to go to higher altitudes and showering the sky with sparks. Johann was a true pioneer in the idea of rockets of today that go into outer space.

During the latter part of the 17th century, the scientific foundations for modern rocketry were laid the great English scientist sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton gave his fundamentals on understanding the physical motion of a rocket, into three laws. These laws explain how rockets work and why they are able to work. Newton’s laws were used on the design of rockets. This would lead up to the evolution of rocket engines. A Dutch professor, Willem Gravesande, thought of such an idea by building model cars propelled by jets of steam.

Germany and Russia began on working with a 45 kilogram rocket. During that time rockets were so powerful that the flames will make deep holes in the ground as soon as it lifts off. Coming toward the 18th century and 19th century it was more common that rockets were use as war weapons. A British colonel William Congreve, he set a design of rockets that would be the highly successful in battles. Used by British ships to pound Fort McHenry in the War of 1812, which inspired Francis Scott Key to write “the rockets’ red glare,” words in his poem that later, became The Star- Spangled Banner.

By 1898, a Russian school teacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was one of the first to propose the idea of space exploration by a rocket. In a report published in 1903, hos idea was the use of liquid propellants for rockets in order to get a greater range. Such ideas had to be carefully researched in order for a greater vision. Tsiolkovsky was the father of the modern astronautics. An American Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945) used ideas like Tsiolkovsky in a way of achieving higher altitudes, by 1919; his idea lead a method of reaching extreme altitudes.

It was a mathematical analysis of what today we call the meteorological sounding rocket. Goddard continued his experiments, convincing him that a rocket could be propelled better by liquid fuel. Although it was a much more difficult task than building a common solid rocket this liquid fuel rocket consisted of fuel and oxygen tanks, turbines, and combustion chambers that would be needed. In spite of the difficulties, Goddard achieved the first successful flight with a liquid- propellant rocket on March 16, 1926.

Goddard’s rocket was the forerunner of a whole new era in rocket flight. His experiments continued for several years becoming bigger and going higher making his achievements to be called the father of modern rocketry. A third great space pioneer, Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) published a book in 1923 about ricket travel into outer space. His Writings were important because of them; many rocket societies sprang up around the world. Such like the society the Verein fut Raumschiffart (Society for space travel), that led to development of the V-2 rocket used for WWII.

Rocket like the V-2 Germans designed such a weapon for advanced missiles capable to hit the U. S. but with the fall of Germany, many unused V-2 rockets and components were captured by the Allies. Many German rocket scientists came to the United States. Others went to the Soviet Union. Both the United States and the Soviet Union realized the potential of rocketry as a military weapon and began a variety of experimental program, leading to long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles development like the Redstone, atlas, and titan that would eventually launch astronauts into space.

This became the starting point of the U. S space program. On October 4, 1957 man-kind finally achieved to launch an earth-orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union. It was called the sputnik I, being successful for the race for space between the two superpower nations. Few months later the United States followed in launching one of its own rockets (explored I) on January 31, 1958, then United States formally organized its space program by creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

NASA became a civilian agency with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all humankind. Soon, many people and machines were being launched into space. Astronauts orbited Earth and landed on the Moon. Robot spacecraft traveled to the planets. Space was suddenly opened up to exploration and commercial exploitation. Since the earliest days of discovery and experimentation, rockets have evolved from simple gunpowder devices into giant vehicles capable of traveling into outer space. Rockets have opened the universe to direct exploration by humankind.

Hero of Alexandria kai-Keng Rockets Sir Isaac NewtonBritish rocket battles Robert H. Goddard Rocket design References http://library. thinkquest. org/J0112188/history_of_rocketry. htm http://inventors. about. com/od/rstartinventions/a/Rockets. htm http://en. m. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_rockets http://www. smithsonianmag. com/ideas-innovations/The-History-of-Rocket-Science-187941951. html? device=android http://www. history. com/this-day-in-history/first-liquid-fueled-rocket http://www. luna-city. com/space/rockets. html

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The Lost Squatron Short Story

On Tuesday morning, December 5, 2006, Lieutenant Jimmy McGrath, a fresh faced 22 year old, Naval academy graduate, maneuvered his fighter jet across the tarmac at the US Naval Air Station Florida to the designated runway. Behind him, awaiting their tower clearance orders were the four other members of Jimmy’s squadron. The men, boys really, some with peach fuzz beards, were training for assignment in Dubai, where they could fly sorties over Afghanistan and Iraq. All five pilots had been training here in Florida for several weeks, their high stress air combat training punctuated by wild Florida nights of heavy drinking and non-stop womanizing.

The locals were used to it, having hosted these flyboys since Lauderdale nearly burst at the seams with newly drafted airmen, training in T-6s, and SNJ fighter trainers during World War 2. McGrath readied his jet at the flight line and after a final instrument check, increased throttle towards rotation speed, rumbling down the runway and easing back on the stick until the two ton plane defied gravity and began a steady ascent into the clouds hanging over the azure blue ocean. McGrath banked the plane right and felt momentary g-force pressure as he rolled away from the take off flight path to allow the next jet to leave the Earth.”Hee-haw” shrieked through Jimmy’s mic, as his wingman, Bobby-Joe Nicholson followed McGrath into the heavens. Nicholson grew up in tobacco rich North Carolina back country, and his accent and redneck colloquialisms made training a lot easier for everybody.

Nicholson was followed by Andy Grayson, from Wichita, then Angel Fernandez of the Bronx, and finally Ron Fontaine, a graduate of the Donnelly Housing Projects in Detroit. Fontaine was voted by his peers the last person anyone wanted to meet in a back alley for a fight. He was also the most accomplished “stick man” among them. Despite his “officer and gentleman status, Fontaine’s 6 foot 2 inch muscular frame and tattooed biceps gave off a menacing appearance respected and feared by the other young pilots.

The five jets screamed through the blue sky, each plane’s engine creating enormous jet trails flowing behind, until they maneuvered into formation. The planes floated in the air next to each other as if dangling on elastic strings, their high-powered engines, flying in unison, making it appear as if they were not even moving.

“OK guys,” McGrath bellowed,” lets head south over the ocean and then take a bearing of 26 degrees, 3 minutes north, then 80 degrees, 7 minutes west toward Hen and Chickens Shoals.” Although he did not mention it, the day’s flight path would eventually take them into them into heart of the Devils Triangle.

The Devils Triangle, or Bermuda Triangle as it was sometimes called, was a triangular patch of ocean in the Atlantic stretching from the Florida Keys south towards the Bermuda Islands. As every school kid knows, the Triangle’s legend of mystery encompasses numerous claims of disappearing ships and aircraft.

None of the men gave any serious thought to the Triangle legend, not many people did anymore since the quasi-pulp fiction exposes published in the 1970s tried to give pseudo-scientific credence to alleged supernatural happenings in that part of the Atlantic Ocean. However, they all knew about it.

“Where to skip,?” crackled over the airwaves from Ron Fontaine’s cockpit.

“We’re headed to the old junked freighter for some bombing and strafing practice,” responded Lieutenant McGrath.

“And Ron,” said the flight leader, “this time wait for my signal before you starting locking in on the target.”

“Shiiiit,” Fontaine screeched into his headset, and the other pilots chuckled at the exchange between the two men.

“Hey Lieutenant, this time can we go in youngest pilot first,?” said Fernandez.

“What is it with you guys from New Yawk,” drawled Nicholson, “y’all think you’re born to tell the rest of us what to do.”

“Hey, Tobacco boy,” I saw a guy like you once in the Bronx Zoo, behind bars,” Fernandex replied with a laugh.

“Aw can it, you two,” shouted McGrath, “and tighten up the formation. Fernandez and Grayson pick it up back there.”

“Aye, aye sir,” came the reply, in unison.

The old freighter had been towed to this classified location in 1945, near the war’s end, and for 60 years had, along with several other decommissioned vessels, been used to train young hot-shot pilots in the art of air war.

“All right, in about 60 second we’ll come up on the shoals bomb site, Nicholson and Fontaine, break right and take the first pass. Remember, nose guns first, then use one Sidewinder missile each the second time around,” McGrath ordered.

The silver jets streaked through the cloud-filled blue sky like sharp knives slicing through warm biscuits.

The two pilots took the lead and banked towards the abandoned and anchored old ship and locked onto the target with their computerized weapons guidance system. With today’s technology they could hit a small object from a distance of a mile or more, but their state side training still required close target approaches. The planes would come within 500 yards of the target on the first pass.

The three other pilots kept a distance to watch the show and wait their turn, as determined by their flight leader, Lieutenant McGrath.

Nicholson and Fontaine took turns firing their 30 Millimeter, seven barrel nose guns at the old tub, blasting holes in the rusting hull at apace of 3900 rounds a minute, which exploded with a fury of sparks, smoke and flying debris as they roared past

“Nice work guys,” McGrath said.

“Commander Taylor, my fuel is low, and my instruments are still acting up, maybe we should be heading West” crackled across his headphones in response.

“Come back,” McGrath replied. Is that you Fernandez. Stop the bullshit, will ya.”

“Not me, Lieutenant,” Fernandez replied, “Don’t expect me to give you a promotion,” he laughed.

“Cut it out,” McGrath said, as he scanned the skies around him, “are one of you guys having instrument problems?”

“Everyone check in,” he commanded.

“Nicholson here, I’m fine Lieutenant.”

“This is Fontaine, Jimmy, no problems with my bird.”

“This is Grayson, sir, it wasn’t me.”

“Well who the hell is playing around.” McGrath shouted.

“I can’t see any land, sir” came the voice again. This time someone else responded.

“Boys, this is Taylor, don’t worry, we left the Georgia swamp area 30 miles back, and we should be coming up on the Keys shortly,”

“Who’s on this frequency, identify yourselves, ” Lt. McGrath said into his helmet mic.

He scanned his instrument radar panel and again looked outside his cockpit canopy but did not see any other planes in the bright, clear, mid-day sky.

Without answering McGrath, the unknown chatter continued.

“Hey Brownie, if we ever find our way back, I’m gonna propose to that nurse I met last week at the USO Holiday dance.”

“Yeah, yeah sure, the one whose feet you kept stepping on during the Glen Miller piece?”

“Shiiit, Glenn Miller, what the fuck is that all about,” Fontaine said.

“Hey, one of you guys playing some sort of trick on our boy Jimmy,” Fernandez laughed.

“Yeah, one of those old radio shows, or some shit like that,” Fontaine replied.

“I don’t know about you but it’s freaking me out,” said Grayson. “Anyway, whoever it is mentioned Lauderdale, so it’s probably some old Navy guys out for a joyride. I see those guys come out on Sunday’s sometimes and fly around in those old radial engine trainers.”

“Yeah, but it ain’t Sunday, and what they all doin’ on our radio frequency,” drawled Nicholson.

“All right, all right, forget about it. It’s probably just somebody playing around,” bellowed McGrath, “lets get ready for the second run. One missile this time.”

Fontaine and Grayson broke away from the formation again and headed toward the target This time they programmed their guidance system to fire one AIM-9 Sidewinder missile each at a distance of a half mile.

Within seconds each jet shimmied slightly as their missiles dislodged from under their wings and moved off in an arc of white smoke toward the old half-sunken freighter.

The missile warheads were loaded with only small amounts of explosives so that they would create damage but not completely obliterate the boat, leaving it sufficiently intact for further training runs.

The two missiles struck, on forward one aft, almost simultaneously, and a column of smoke, debris, and sea water rose high into the air.

As the mix fell back again, the pilots who were all observing the action noticed small black objects off in the distance, beyond the target area, moving slowly toward them.

“What the fuck is that,” sad Fernandez into his mic.

Grayson and Fontaine, who had pulled up and over the target, getting a birds-eye view of the damage they caused, rolled across the sky, unknowingly hurtling their jets directly in the path of the shadowy, black objects.

Some three miles away, the rest of the squadron watched as Fontaine and Grayson blew past the objects and then banked and ascended up and to the left.

As they had flown by, in the seconds they were adjacent to the objects, both pilots had seen something that had startled them.

Grayson and Fontaine had peered into the cockpits of a squadron of World War 2 naval fighters, “Avengers”, each operated by a two or three man crew, a pilot facing forward, sometimes with a co-pilot, and a gunner operating a ball turret weapon aft.

“Shiiit,” Fontaine yelled into his helmet mic, “did you see that Grayson.”

“What the hell are those old warbirds doing way out here, the air museum operates outta Pensacola,” Grayson replied.

“Hell if I know,” Fontaine said, “but they were sure as shittin surprised by us.”

“Damn lucky we didn’t clip their wings.”

“Hey skip,” Fontaine said, calling out to Lieutenant McGrath, ” you won’t believe what’s headed your way.”

“I see ’em, Fontaine, we’re gonna give those old buckets some room so we don’t blow their tails off with our engines,” McGrath replied.

The remaining jets elevated their flight path to avoid the oncoming relics of the past, shooting with Mach speed into the lower stratosphere.

“Commander, did you see that?,” said one of the warbird pilots.

“I sure did, Tex,” replied Taylor, I don’t know what the hell it was but I saw a red, white and blue star on it’s side so it must be ours.”

“Hell yes,” Tex’s gunner cried, “we must be close to the Shoals now. I see the target ship they towed out this way a few weeks ago.”

“I bet that was some experimental jet the Nazis were using, I saw a few being worked on at the base. Just come over from Germany last week for testing,” said one of the Avenger pilots.

OK, men, settle down” Commander Taylor ordered, “set a course for the direction of the target vessels and let’s get these tired birds home.”

“Hey, my instruments are working again, Commander,” said one of the pilots.

“Mine too, Chuck,” cried another.

“Looks like we’ll make it back after all,” the Avenger flight leader said, “and not a moment too soon with these near empty gas gauges. Keep a tight formation as we head in boys. Follow my lead. Last one on the deck has to kiss Charlie McCarthy’s bald head.”

The jet pilots listened, without a word, to the entire conversation going on below them. Fontaine and Grayson had rejoined the group and they were all now headed due East at 400 miles an hour at an elevation of 25,000 feet.

Finally, Fernandez spoke up.

“You catch that, Lieutenant.”

“”Probably some re-enactors,” Lt. McGrath replied, although his voice had lost its usual firm, confident tone.

“What the hell they doin’ out here, Jimmy,” said Nicholson, “don’t make no sense at all.”

McGrath had to agree. This area was restricted to Naval air traffic. He thought he better contact the base and let them know what was going on.

“Flight leader Bravo calling Lauderdale, come in Lauderdale.”

The air was quiet.

“Flight leader Bravo calling Lauderdale, come in Lauderdale”


“Hey Jimmy,” Fontaine said, “my computer just went down.”

“Hey me too,” Nicholson shouted.

The five jets flew in tight formation through the clouds as chaos erupted in their cockpits.

“Flight leader Chuck Taylor calling Lauderdale, come in Lauderdale.”

“This is Lauderdale, where the heck you guys been?” came the reply. The Base Commander’s been going crazy. They even called the War Department.”

“You guys can tell the patrols to come back, we’re a little late but we’re home, ” replied Commander Taylor.

On the stormy evening of December 5, 1945, five TBM Avengers, their heavy radial engines roaring across the Florida sky, approached US Naval Air Station in tight formation. One by one the gleaming blue fighter planes lowered their flaps, cut off their throttles and eased their tired metal frames onto the tarmac. As they rolled off the runway, they passed rows of B-17 bombers, fresh from the battle over Europe, being serviced and refit for duty in the Pacific against the Japanese.

Worried ground crews raced in gray jeeps toward each plane, dropping heavy wooden blocks under the wheels, and climbing up on the wings to draw back the heavy canopies to release the human cargo.

The fourteen crew members scrambled to the airfield grounds and embraced one another, removing their yellow Mae West vests and crush caps, giving thanks that what was lost was once again found.

Meanwhile, miles away, five jet fighters crossed the sky into an ethereal graveyard. They hurtled at supersonic speed into an endless vortex of space and time without up or down, without time or space, without any connection to the world they left behind.

At NORAD, desperate computer messages flooded the communications room alerting the men and women who worked there of a crisis in the making.

An Admiral rushed into the room in time to confront a telecommunications staffer who was the most recent recipient of the tragic news.

“Sir,” the young ensign said to the astonished man,” Flight 19 is missing.”

“Get me Rumsfeld,” the Admiral replied.

Two wars, 6 decades apart. Two tragedies, dance partners in a macabre story with ironic parallels. The past and the future, melded together, and separated, one mystery solved, another one just beginning.

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Aviation Flight School

The research focused on the ways in which flight schools can provide a specialized training format that satisfies goals for both professional and recreational pilots. These are unique ways in which, flight schools can achieve flight instruction for students by providing a strong training format that meets the individuals needs. Offering practical and theoretical skills to the students, and ensuring professional instructors. Also the use of modern facilities and equipment for teaching students; with a strong emphasis for FAA standards during all phases of instruction.

These are some ideas flight schools should adopt in order to meet needs and demands of their students. Introduction The purpose of the research was to find how flight schools provide unique flight training solutions to meet needs of their students. The research identifies principles that flight schools practice as a school that takes a pilot from never having piloted an aircraft to, “helping them know when to use their landing lights, transponder, and trim tabs. (Above View FBO [AV], 2008)

Learning to fly is one of the dreams of many people; and there are many reasons to learn to fly and most local flight schools can facilitate student’s needs on just about any schedule and desired rating or certification. (G&B Aircraft Management [G&B], 2008) Some may want to learn to fly for recreational purposes while others may learn to fly for a career. Whether as a career, or for recreational purposes in flight operations is one of the more unique areas of flight training in aviation.

Students at flight schools can be trained to become commercial pilots or recreational pilots. For the commercial pilot the world of aviation is very much exciting, dynamic and can be very demanding. In order for one to become a professional aviator whom the world can rely and depend on in the future, one has to undergo thorough flight training. Simply attending a flight school is never enough, though it is a basic requirement, one needs to be thoroughly trained before he is given certification. Schofields flying club [Schofields], 2008) For Private pilots aviation is taken as a recreation that provides the student with a sense of freedom, fun, and accomplishment that stays with that person forever. Private pilots also begin with the same detailed training that commercial pilots need. (Schofields, 2008) For both types of students the training environment for flight should be conducive and all tools needed for training should be available in order to ensure a clear understanding. (Schofields, 2008) Theoretical and Practical Skills

The main objective of flight training is to impart airmanship skills on the students, putting in mind the principles of flight, and the ability to safely operate and navigate an aircraft with precision. Training on flight courses covers two areas that are the on-ground theory lessons and the practical training in the air. Students in flight schools are acquitted with a wide scope of knowledge on the areas that are related to flights. (Schofields, 2008) Students learn basic principles of flight, meteorology, flight rules and regulations.

Also flight school students are trained in navigation, radio communications, and the aircraft itself. The use of sophisticated instruments, systems, and other equipment ensure that the students have a wide-ranging knowledge on several different areas of operation that relate to aviation. When a student is fully trained, and correctly demonstrates proficiency in these areas, he or she is awarded a certificate to show that they are professionally acquitted with the necessary knowledge and skills for flight. (Schofields, 2008) Availability of Facilities

Aviation schools should have FAA flight facilities and equipments at the location of operation. This gives the student an added advantage in that they can access the facilities as they need, and also gives them an opportunity to attend ground lessons, which is a major part of the study. Flight schools tend to use less commercialized airports for training flights this gives students training without the crowded airspace. (Flight Training, 2004) Strong Training Format In order for students to be fully prepared to take off on flights they are subjected to a specialized and strong training format that is followed by the school.

Aviation flight schools when training students should train them using modern equipment, and facilities. This will give students the opportunity to learn what is currently used in the field of aviation. When the training is based on new and modern technology the students are in a better position since they can fit in the field. (Flight Training, 2004) Most of the Aviation schools have developed a structured curriculum, which is used to demonstrate various airplane systems which include a complete set of working flight instructions to enhance learning opportunities.

They use multimedia services and the Internet to gain more information on the new developments in the field. A proven training system ensures that students are fully trained before they are given certificates to practice flight as a career or for recreational purposes. (Flight Training, 2004) There are many curriculums for a flight school to adopt, in fact some flight schools may have more than one to cater to the needs of their students; such as structured accelerated programs, or a self paced pay as you go open schedule program. (K. Hansen, personal communication, April 7, 2008)

The idea behind a strong training format that a flight school adopts, or develops, is for retention. Not just of students for the flight school, but primarily the student’s knowledge. (J. Gifford, personal communication, April 7, 2008) Emphasis on FAA Standards “The flight school falls under a variety of Federal Aviation Regulations…FAR Part 91 is the basic set of regulations for general flight operations. In addition to that, flight training can be conducted under FAR Part 61, the regulation for flight training or under a combination of FAR Part 61 and 141. (Vincent, 2008)

Flight schools are divided into FAA-approved (part 141) and non-approved (part 61) they are usually divided based on the regulations under which they operate. FAA-approved schools “voluntarily submit their procedures and training to a higher standard of curriculum use, regulation and paperwork in exchange for lower hour requirements prior to a student receiving a flight certificate or rating. ” (Vincent, 2008) Also they are periodically audited, this is done to ensure that they follow the laid down training format.

Have detailed FAA certified course outlines, the course outlines are detailed and certified to ensure that what is covered in one aviation institution is covered in all other schools. It must meet trainee pilot performance rates to maintain certification. While non-approved (part 61) schools do not have similar requirements, they cater for students who need more flexibility with lesson content and scheduling. (Flight Training, 2004) FAA standards are emphasized in every aspect of learning including equipment maintenance and flight training.

This is usually achieved through taking of FAA tests in the classroom at the conclusion of each course, the FAA certified CATS testing program certifies the tests. (Flight Training, 2004) Emphases are put mostly on the fundamentals, and safety of the flights this is usually achieved through ground school courses, which are continually offered to the students. They are used to ensure that they have a complete understanding of the fundamentals. The student pilots are provided with aeronautical decision-making and flight maneuvering skills in order to remain safe under all circumstances.

Modernized Facilities and Equipment Today there is a demand by students for the use of newer model glass panel equipped aircraft. Some of the instruments that these aircraft include are uplink NEXRAD weather images, traffic and terrain collision alert systems, autopilots and leather interiors. These are tools that can help students when they are carrying out their practical lessons. (Miller, 2008)

However cost is also a concern, newer aircraft cost more to purchase and operate compared to older models. Many flight schools often have a variety of aircraft types to “offer several options for training and rental purposes. (AV, 2008) However if the student’s needs, and or budget do not allow them to always fly the latest and greatest airplane out there, it is essential for them to know that the aircraft they do fly are safe and properly maintained. Students want to be assured that “the safety of [their] aircraft is [their] number one priority. ” (AV, 2008) Continued Trainings for Licensed Pilots Aviation schools also offer trainings for pilots who wish to advance in their field, receive additional endorsements or ratings, or simply stay current.

The hours of operation also run from early morning to late evening, weekdays and weekend training times, which enable even the busiest professional to fit flight training into his schedule. This helps the pilots to gain more knowledge, and continue to keep aviation in their schedules. (Miller, 2008) For many flight schools the idea is not only to teach new students how to fly but to continue to cater to all their students, or customers, needs past, present, and future; to become their one stop shop for aviation. (G&B) Professional Instructors

When performing aircraft operations as a student pilot the teaching is done one on one, and students want to know that their flight school has professional instructors who are fully trained and have all the required qualifications for the training that they provide. (K. Hansen, personal communication, April 7, 2008) These instructors are former students themselves that have experience, have demonstrated exceptional skill, and received additional training. Accomplished flight instructors are also personally committed to educating the students one on one and helping them to learn.

Flight Instructors are “pilots who know their way around the cockpit as well as the classroom. ” (AV, 2008) Conducive Environment Although parts of the students training involves ground school, and sometimes simulations, the majority of flight training is conducted in the actual real world environment. Because of the uniqueness of this kind of environment it should be a goal of the flight school to make this environment as conducive as possible for learning.

Having facilities that the student can access that has similarities to a school and not a rental agency will also help “provide a personal, comprehensive environment for learning. (AV, 2008) Students should be treated and recognized as an individual, a student, and then a paying customer, not simply as cash flow; by a school that can take “pride in being able to cater to [students] needs. ” (AV, 2008) This motivates the students, fosters learning, and generally establishes long-term relationships with the flight school for the student pilots aviation needs. The students should be equipped with Radio communication skills; this is because radio communications lie at the base of procedural flying.

Proficiency in radio communication is fundamental to becoming a skilled procedural pilot. In air communications is an essential tool for all pilots. A student pilot should spend time, and effort to acquire an accurate radio technique. Good radio communication skills are of great value to the student at all aspects, and stages of his flying. Radio communications are designed to satisfy both the formal theoretical needs and the practical needs of all students’ professional and private pilots.

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Kalpana Chawla: The First Indian-American Astronaut

‘Kalpana Chawla’ ( July 1 , 1961 – February 1 , 2003 ) was an Indian-American astronaut and space shuttle mission specialist of STS-107 ( Columbia ) who was killed when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere . Early Life Chawla was born in Karnal , Haryana , India . Her interest […]

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Advanced Flight Deck Technology for Safety

Over the years and through technology and the requirements of safety and comfort new deck flight plans have been devised and implemented. With this forward movement of a more integrated flight deck and commercial aircraft overall, this has led to a wider safety margin, a more economical cost of operations which in turn will help […]

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Mun Unoosa

Space junk, also known space debris and space waste, is the collection of objects in orbit around Earth that were created by humans but no longer serve any useful purpose, which can consist of everything from old dead satellites to explosion and collision fragments. These objects often overlap the trajectory of new space shuttles or […]

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Apollo 13

On April 11th 1970 the Apollo 13 Lunar Mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Aboard Apollo 13, 3 astronauts—Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise—were seeking to be the third mission to land on the moon. 56 hours into the flight the members of the ground crew of Mission Control in Houston, […]

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