Voyager Interstellar Mission

The Voyager Interstellar Mission is rooted in the Grand Tour – an alignment of the outer planets which allowed for a single space probe to visit each of them rapidly.

The Voyager spacecraft were constructed to do just that – obtain close up views and observations of the outer planets. Together, the two spacecraft brought unprecedented observations of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and their corresponding satellites and ring systems.

Having completed their planetary mission after the visit of Neptune in 1989, the two Voyagers are now continuing their journey out of the Solar System. Instead of fading into obscurity, the Voyagers are still transmitting back observations in its new mission – the Voyager Interstellar Mission. Instead of observing planets, the two spacecraft are now giving us our first glimpses into the edges of the solar system.

To do this, mission scientists had to use instruments meant for observing planets for observing the environment at the area at the edge of the Solar System. Five distinct and specialized scientific groups are currently engaged on analyzing the data coming from Voyager. Together with Voyager, these groups have expanded our understanding of the outer solar system.

Power and funding challenges continue to hound the Voyager mission. Since its launch, Voyager’s power source has been continually declining. To cope with the lowered power output, components of Voyager have been shut down one by one which means that some measurements have already been or will be stopped in the near future.

The mission ends when the power sources cannot anymore power any single instrument. Some earth bound problems remain however as budget cuts threaten the existence of the mission.

Voyager Interstellar Mission – Paper Proposal

For this paper, I plan on discussing the Voyager Interstellar Mission.  The proposed  outline is attached below.

My interest in the Voyager Interstellar Mission lies in their wonderful history and unique position. In this sense, the Voyager spacecraft are like “the little space probes that could”.

The Voyager spacecraft were initially launched more than thirty years ago to take advantage of a unique arrangement of the outer planets.  This arrangement made The Grand Tour possible, visiting each of the outer planets consecutively within a short amount of time.

The spacecraft were originally meant to take closeup observations of the outer planets, observations which were not possible to make from Earth. They were successful in doing this, having sent back pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Their discoveries adding to and refining our knowledge of the outer planets.

Having finished their original mission, the two spacecraft continue on their voyage out of the Solar System. With no forces holding them back, the two will continue on their journey indefinitely and will soon be traveling in Interstellar space.

The Voyager Interstellar Mission takes advantage of this fact, exploiting the location of the twin Voyagers to gather data and observations about the edge of the Solar System. If the planetary mission helped to add and refine our knowledge of the outer planets, the interstellar mission is currently helping add and refine our knowledge of the environment and processes at work at the solar system’s edge.

In line with this, I also plan on discussing current knowledge about the edge of the Solar System. This knowledge will help the reader comprehend the scope of the Voyager Interstellar Mission as well as what the Voyager probes are expected to understand.

A discussion of the spacecraft is also needed to understand the mission. The instruments used in the interstellar mission are the same instruments used in observing the outer planets.

By understanding these instruments, we get an understanding of the kind of observations that the Voyagers are doing in Interstellar space. We also gain an understanding of the operations that enable the mission to communicate with Earth. Understanding the spacecraft also allows us to understand the main challenge facing the mission – the loss in power.

Even if the success of the Voyager program has already been established, it still faces some challenges. Due to its age its power generating system has had severe losses in capacity. Because of this several instruments and systems aboard the craft have already been shut down due to the loss in power. Earth bound troubles also hound the craft as budget cuts threaten the existence of the mission.

To complete the paper, I plan on giving a few samples of the scientific advances that the Interstellar mission has brought. It is also important to realize the amount of research that the thirty year old Voyagers have enabled. I also point out some researches from Voyager that have helped us in our understanding of the Sun.

In this way, I point out that these spacecraft even if they are very far are even giving us new insights to something that is quite close to home.


Writing Quality

Grammar mistakes

D (60%)


B (85%)

Redundant words

B (82%)




F (46%)

Total mark


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Flight 93 and Utilitarianism in Times of Crisis

On September 11, 2001 United Airlines flights 93 crashed in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. It has been theorized that the crash was a result of the passengers trying to regain control after it had been hijacked by four members of the Al Qaeda terrorist group in their attempt fly the aircraft into either the White House or the U.S. Capitol building.

With that being said, let’s change the scenario a little bit. Suppose that none of the passengers attempted to interfere with the terrorists plot to crash the plane into Washington D.C. Would it be acceptable for the government to launch military aircraft to intercept and possibly shoot down the airliner knowing that all 44 people on board would be killed? From a utilitarian mindset my answer would have to be yes.

The whole point behind utilitarianism is to find the one action which maximizes utility, meaning, producing the greatest net benefit. When all things have been considered there is only one right action. It looks at what is good for the greatest number which means that it is possible to do something that has a positive net benefit for the majority but may be very harmful to another segment of the population.

In the case of flight 93, shooting down the airliner and sacrificing 44 lives would have, in turn, save the lives of hundreds of people on the ground. Preventing the terrorists from reaching their destination would have averted the likelihood that a large number of our elected officials would have been severely injured or killed. Also, it would have prevented the potential shutdown of the U.S. Government, a shutdown that would have had negative effects felt around the world.

This brings to light an interesting question. Are we more likely to accept the idea of utilitarianism in times of crisis? Again, I would have to answer yes. People tend to gravitate toward and readily accept structure and guidance, especially in times of crisis. By applying a utilitarian style of thinking, everything is broken down into costs and benefits and can be
quantified and rationalized.

There are times that we may find utilitarian style of thinking to be to our advantage. For example, in times of crisis, however, I don’t feel that this makes the utilitarian theory universally acceptable because utilitarianism has the potential to be very unjust or unfair. It is human nature to apply a mix of all these different theories to our every day decision-making process. We can’t just apply one style of thinking to the situation. I guess this is why some decisions seem nearly impossible to make.

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Development of New Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

A lot of people nowadays consider ordinary space travel and tourism as an outlandish vision for the next century and for the upcoming future. On the other hand, scientists and futurists say that space tourism is a possible subject and possibility that current aeronautics and space science will lead to in the next few years. Other people view space tourism as a complete waste of resources given the multitude of earthbound problems that needs to be solved before having a nice flight back and forth from space. In spite of all these foreseen problems, space tourism is a reality that many people await and envision. These people comprise of visionaries and business men who are currently building the required facilities to make space tourism possible and who also have the courage to believe in the idea that space tourism can be a reality.

Space tourism is essentially spaceflight which has been funded by personal interests for the purposes of personal satisfaction. Likewise, space tourism is very similar to any tourist vacation in the Bahamas or in the Caribbean or in any destination in Earth. Some of the personal reasons for spending on space tourism comprise the very unique experience of having been into space, the experience of weightlessness, the ability to view the curvature and disk of the earth, as well as the status of having been one of the few people who have been space tourists.


  • To be able to gain knowledge from the space travel and tourism.
  • To be able to explore the different possibilities in travelling through space.
  • To be able to assess and evaluate current space travel methods and technology available today.
  • To be able to assess the output of space tourism as a business.
  • To be able to identify the problems encountered as a consequence to space travel and tourism proposals.
  • To be able to briefly name and briefly discuss the possible future technologies for space travel.

Literature Cited

Space Tourism is the term that’s come to be used to mean ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and back. Many people find this idea futuristic. But over the past few years a growing volume of professional work has been done on the subject, and it’s now clear that setting up commercial space tourism services is a realistic target for business today.

(Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

The first steps will just be short sub-orbital flights, like Alan Sheppard made in 1961, since these are easier than getting to orbit. But the technical know-how to make passenger launch vehicles and orbiting hotel accommodation is available, and there is enormous unsatisfied demand market research has revealed that most people, at least in the industrialized countries, would like to take if it was possible. This gives huge scope for reducing the cost of space travel by large-scale operation like airlines. (Boyle, 2008)

One of the main challenges is merely the conservatism of the space engineering as it is today. Since Sputnik was launched in 1957 almost all space launches and activities are government related. This race to the space has created many activities that projected an image of space exploration and tourism which almost all people kept thinking about. People like – writers, journalists, politicians, scientists and engineers, and the general public give their own insights to the exploration of space and space tourism.

Developing low-cost passenger launch vehicles is not just to create a pastime for the rich. In business, the companies that make big money are the ones that serve big markets. Like tourism on Earth, there will be a small expensive segment for the rich – but the great majority of space tourists will be middle-class customers – the greater majority of us. ( Dignan, 2008)

The utilization of the space is endless but it is very much dependent on access. Until admittance will become cheap, we can’t make use of the unlimited resources and supplies that are available in space for us to have a solution to the problems of our over populated Earth. When the time comes that access will be cheap, admittance to space will much more be easier. Making space travel cheap will require large turnovers of cash and money. Tourism can generate the large-scale launch activity needed to reduce costs sufficiently to start to use space resources – and so it’s one of the most important projects in the world today. ( Dignan, 2008)

Commercial space activities today include satellites being used for communications, broadcasting and photography (remote sensing). But these are small businesses – no more than a few $billions per year – that will never need humans in space. So “commercial space activities” today are not leading towards space tourism. (Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

Moreover, if certain companies and people would want a better space travel and tourism adventure, then we should expect that more technologies and activities related to building space vehicles and other will be put in to place.

Some people say “Developing space tourism is very difficult, so it’ll take a long time. Leave it to the government space agencies.” But the agencies already spend $25 billion per year on “space activities” – and they are not trying to develop launch vehicles that could open space up to the public. Barely 2% of their budgets are used for this purpose – although even just one year of their huge funding would be plenty! (, 2007)

The Space Future is playing a vital part in the development of a more accessible space by collecting all the work needed. This includes technology, logistics and others critical factors for the exploration of space.

Stages of Space Tourism

Similar to any other business franchise, the moment that space tourism begins it will develop and improve dramatically. Today, we can only think of the different stages of space tourism once it gets started and all.. Beginning with a small-scale and relatively expensive “pioneering stage”, the scale of activity will develop and prices will go down as it matures. Finally it will become a mass-market business, like airplanes today. (McKee, 2005)

Pioneer Stage

The phrase “space adventure travel” has been recommended by Gordon Woodcock of Boeing and is a convenient one to describe the first phase. Customers will be relatively few – from hundreds per year to thousands per year; prices will be lofty, $50,000 and up; and the service will be nearer to “adventure travel” than to extravagance hotel-style. Orbital accommodation will be safe but “spartan”. (Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

Mature Stage

This will see demand growing from thousands of passengers per year to hundreds of thousands per year. Tickets to orbit will cost less and flights will depart from many different airports. Orbital facilities will develop from being just clusters of pre-fabricated modules to large structures constructed in orbit for hundreds of guests, permitting a range of orbital entertainments. (Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

Mass Stage

Ticket prices will go down to the equivalent of a few $ thousand, and customers will from hundreds of thousands to millions of passengers per year. Apparently unthinkable to most people in the space industry, even 1 million passengers per year is just 8 hours of aviation! And aviation is still growing fast at today’s level of 1 billion passengers per year. So there’s no reason to suppose that space travel will ever stop growing. There’s certainly no limit to the possible destinations. And the access to space resources that low cost launch will bring about will ensure that economic growth needn’t end for a few more millennia at least. (Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

Space tourism is a business idea whose time has come in today’s 21st century. Surely it will begin soon and it will grow rapidly and develop progressively. This will now push space related activities in the dawn of the 22nd century.

Leading Space Vehicle Technologies and Space Tourism Companies

Virgin Galactic and SpaceShipTwo

Virgin Galactic, one of the leading potential space tourism groups, is planning to have passenger service on its first spaceship, the Scaled Composite SapceShipTwo with the inaugural launch in 2008 and main flights beginning in 2009. The price is initially set at $200,000. Headed by Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Group , Virgin Galactic will be the first private space tourism company to regularly send civilians into space, by training them for 3 days before their launch. The SpaceShipTwo was built as a result of the X Prize which was won by SpaceShipOne; both SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo were designed by Burt Rutan. Launches will first occur at the Mojave Spaceport in California and will then be moved to the permanent spaceport in Upham, New Mexico. (Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

The spaceships used will go 360,000 feet (109.73 km, or 68.18 miles) high; this goes beyond the height of 100 km, which is the internationally defined boundary between Earth and space. Space flights will last 2.5 hours, carry 6 passengers, and reach a speed of Mach 3. SpaceShipTwo will not require a space shuttle-like heat shield for atmospheric re-entry as it will not experience the extreme aerodynamic heating experienced during re-entry at orbital velocities (approximately Mach 22.5 at a typical shuttle altitude of 300 km, or 185 miles). The glider will employ a “feathering” technique to manage drag during the unpowered descent and landing. SpaceShipTwo will use a single hybrid rocket motor to launch from mid-air after detaching from a mother ship at 50,000 feet, instead of NASA’s Space Shuttle’s ground-based launch. (Virgin Galactic Website. 2008)

Space Adventures

Eric Anderson is the president and CEO of Space Adventures. He co-founded Space Adventures in 1998 with several other entrepreneurs from the aerospace, adventure travel and entertainment industries and has managed the company over the past several years, selling more than $120M in space tourist flights. He has developed and financed over $500 million (USD) in new projects for Space Adventures, including two global spaceports and the first private voyage to the moon, set to launch in 2009. (Space Adventures Website, 2008)

The company sells a variety of flights such as Zero-Gravity flights, cosmonaut training and actual spaceflights. In May 2001, it sent American businessman Dennis Tito to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz Spacecraft for a reported $20 million payment, making him the first space tourist in history. South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth did the same in April 2002 becoming the ‘First African in Space’. Gregory Olsen became the third private citizen to travel to the ISS in October 2005, followed by the first female space tourist, Anousheh Ansari, who completed her 10-day orbital mission in September 2006. Charles Simonyi, an ex-executive at Microsoft who managed the Office product group became the world’s fifth space tourist in April 2007. (Space Adventures Website, 2008)

The Explorer space plane, which will be the main space vehicle that will be used by Soace Adventures,  is a suborbital  tourist space plane based on the Space Adventures C-21 design. The plane is being developed by Space Adventures with the Russian Federal Space Agency and is designed to carry 5 passengers. It is to be air-launched by carrier aircraft from a Space Adventures spaceport. The spaceport for the Explorer is being developed with Prodea in the United Arab Emirates. (Space Adventures Website, 2008)

Technological Advancement

The key in reducing the cost of space tourism is in development of space is in the development of new space vehicles. The current per pound cost of sending anything to space is simply too astronomical for accessible space tourism purposes. The costs climb even higher when sending humans into orbit. Many visionaries and entrepreneurs have realized this and are now working on new spacecraft for the purpose of space tourism.

As mentioned, spacecraft for space tourism should have the goal of being economical and accessible. The Soyuz and the Space Shuttle are neither, being too expensive and needing months of training before a space tourist can climb aboard. Another implied requirement is that the spacecraft is reusable. Both the space shuttle and the Soyuz are not reusable to some degree (the Space Shuttle’s fuel tank is destroyed upon take off and must be replaced). Another requirement is that passenger preparation be much reduced. Current space tourists must undergo months of grueling training before being allowed to fly to space. Lastly, with any tourism experience, the craft should provide a comfortable and safe ride for its passengers.

Today, the most promising space tourism vehicle has been the prototype SpaceShipOne built by Scaled Composites. SpaceShipOne was the winner of the Ansari X-Prize after it was able to reach an altitude of 100 km twice in a two week period while having the capacity for carrying three people. Clearly these abilities are in line with the objectives of space tourism. SpaceShipOne’s flight may not be considered true space flight by some people as it is not able to go into orbit. However at 100km, its passengers will be able to experience weightlessness and will be able to see the curvature of the earth as well as the fading of the atmosphere into the blackness of space.

SpaceShipOne was able to do this through its design. Instead of using rockets to lift it to high altitudes, SpaceShipOne was lifted first to a high altitude before any rockets were ignited. A conventional jet-powered craft, WhiteKnight, carries SpaceShipOne to high altitude. At the predetermined altitude, SpaceShipOne breaks off from WhiteKnight and ignites its hybrid rocket motors to push it to outer space. Upon reentry, SpaceShipOne lands like a conventional plane on a traditional runway. Together with the use of the newest materials and technology,  this “spaceplane” approach was the key in reducing the development and operational costs for SpaceShipOne. SpaceShipOne has now been retired and work is now.


Space Tourism may still be a dream for the majority of us but it is undeniable that huge strides have been made in the past decade to make it possible. The development of space vehicles have lowered the cost for space travel and have accelerated the possibility of private space travel. In the next few years, space travel and space tourism will be one of the ordinary things that any family or any person would go to every holiday or every summer. Just like any other place in the planet, travel time will be much faster compared to early flights and the cost will be leveled off. All of these advancements will be our debt to all visionaries and the engineers who are building future space vehicles for our use.

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History of Space Exploration

Table of contents

For ages, man has always longed to venture into the worlds beyond the sky. This idea as abstract as it was then, was hatched when Galileo Galilei observed the moon with the help of a crude telescope. From the advancement in technology propelled by the industrial age, arose the possibility of the reality of the dream.

One of such dreams was brought to light by the attempts of Soviet space explorations. The secrecy with which the attempt was made added to the shock to the world when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1. This had not been anticipated. The USSR and the United States were in a cold war in the 20th century, thus explains why the US government felt challenged by the launch on the October 4, 1957.

The launch set the pace for the US government, to set the first human on the moon and back on earth. The Soviet Union amongst many failures, had finally managed to send a space ship on the moon. Kennedy wanted to send United States citizens to and fro safely. Soviet Union had taken the leadership in space exploration which they deemed untrue (Swanson et al., 10).

Motivated by the need to be the lead country in the world, the project was set under strict surveillance choreographed by the Kennedy government. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was given the responsibility to make the dream come true. All arrangements and necessary planning was undertaken.

NASA rolled out a well-designed plan, bringing on board all the experts in the field. The project brought varied expertise on board, working together to achieve a common goal. Medical doctors were brought to help with research on the health of the astronauts who would land in space and the effect of contamination by heavenly bodies. The engineers were to design the rockets, there were scientists who would assist in the research.

The project took long to finally achieve. 10 Apollos were tried before the eventual success in 1969, as Kennedy had pledged. The Americans had supported Kennedy in 1961 when he declared the start of the project, with Mercury. With the proper political will amongst a majority of Americans, funds were availed and the project began. It was not until 1969 when Armstrong and his counterparts walked on moon, almost a decade later. There were several attempts made all aimed at perfection before Apollo 11 finally made the epochal landing on the moon. This became the greatest part of history for historians in classifying the 20th century.

Shortcomings of the Apollo program

In spite of the numerous benefits of the Apollo project, shortcomings were plenty. From the death of experts, the nature of the project’s sophistication which called for enormous funds and the risks involved to need for large labor.

There were tragedies during the whole process since its inauguration to the achievement of the set goals. There are astronauts who died during the test of the space craft. Fire broke out when they scientists were testing the suitability of using pure oxygen in the ship. All the occupants were killed by the raging inferno. According to Swanson (2012), in 1967, there was another accident where three astronauts died. The death of these astronauts just two years to the major flight was a real blow to the project. These catastrophes however, made the mission possible as it opened room for perfection of scientific knowledge required.

The project required a huge chunk of funds which had been set aside for other development goals. Up to date, NASA spends billions of money in research and space exploration missions. These activities are very expensive and in as much as there was political goodwill at the inauguration of the project, there are still a sect of American citizens who believe that the whole idea is a hoax. The development of the technology used, the machines used are very expensive to build due to their sophistication.

The United States is under on a low labor crisis era. Apollo program was an enormous program that required very many employees. According to Swanson (2012), over 400,000 engineers, technicians and scientists were brought on board. The magnitude of the project called for high labor, depriving other industries of the same. It was during this era that the benefits were not yet formulated. All that was motivating the mission was the spirit of adventure, which had nothing to do with challenges America was facing at that time.

The significance of the project

The United states was fighting for leadership in space projects, thus when USSR made their first launch, there called for a response to prove superiority. The US felt the need to be the super power country in the world in terms of technology, military and leadership. PresidentKennedy had the responsibility of maintaining the honor of America. In 1961 when he declared the mission within the decade, public funds were put to budget in bid to complete the mission as scheduled.

The project has contributed greatly towards knowledge on the outer space. It has helped unveil some of the mysteries the world has had for ages. This makes the Apollo program highly monumental not only to the US government, but also the rest of the world as a whole. There have been queries about the presence of life in other places apart from earth, people have imagined whether other planets are just like the earth or whether they are unique, whether the earth is the only place with inhabitants amongst many other wonders.

The project provided room for analysis of the moon, where samples of rocks were brought back to earth and are now under analysis by geologists and other scientists. Others are in various museums to preserve the historic event. There are already theories to explain for the absence of lunar substances on planet earth.

The Apollo project’s success has spearheaded research and innovations all over. The mastery of the space workability and operations, has opened ways for development of more advanced machines. These machines are prescribed with extremely high precision. From the architectural and engineering knowledge that was in constant application during the Apollo program, there saw a rise of special sciences like robotic science.

Robots work both within the earth and in other current space missions and have been developed to work with minimal maintenance (Hart and Michael 128). Other devices include electronic gadgets like mobile phones, televisions, high resolution cameras which can capture clear pictures in HD. The zooming property of cameras was an idea from the Apollo project.

Medical field hasn’t been left out. For instance, the practice of telemedicine originated from the program (Garshnek, Victoria, Frederick and Burkle 27). While in space, the astronauts need advanced medical healthcare even in the absence of doctors. For the long journeys expected in the 21st century, NASA has invested in research of telemedicine which is in use even to the public. Those in remote locations can still access medical checkup.

This medical approach towards cases of emergency employ telecommunication and information technology. This has become a routine occurrence especially by the US military and governmentagencies in their rescue missions to disaster-stricken regions. Research is still ongoing and this field is very promising. According to Garshnek (1999), telemedicine encompasses all the medical procedures over transmission modalities. Such an application of telemedicine was when the Virgin Islands of the United States were stuck by hurricane. The first teleradiology systems were applied to save the situation in 1990.

Research on a reliable self-sustaining system for long missions has been of great importance (Lauseur et al., 10). The concept is based on regenerative design system. The crafts going for longer missions will require little support from ground operators, thereby prompting the need for self-reliance while in space.

The system can be used to eliminate food shortages in the world. Currently, MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) has conducted research which is still on going on these systems. With such systems in place, the visions to eliminate food shortages can be easily achieved. It also saves on the research funds rather than conducting parallel research projects.

Among other major benefits of the project is its contribution to education. The project allowed for the orbital of the moon by the space crafts which made it possible to send satellites afloat on space. These satellites collect millions of data every micro-second and is transmitted directly to the earth stations. The data is then processed into useful information.

This data has been crucial in military operations, geographical and geospatial studies where topographical pictures are analyzed. Calamities such as earthquakes and hurricanes are easily analyzed as they occur. This allows for preparations for these catastrophic phenomenon, thereby minimizing casualties.

Future explorations

Although the activities The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been through political regulations, preparations are still on for a major mission. The most recent decision by the senate on the budget deducted about $300 million dollars from the project. NASA has set up strategies to plan for the next major tour in the space. There is research on various issues ongoing to make the exploration to other space bodies such as Mars safe.


The Apollo program, from a general perspective was a success and needs support. The struggle, determination and methodology used by the then scientist during that age is astounding. The project whose initial object was to restore the honor of the US, has proved to be extremely beneficial to the society. The technological advancements have been made possible and catalyzed by the project due to the great expertise which was required to make the exploration as safe as possible.

However, the cost of maintaining NASA is very expensive. Funding the ISS for the past 20 years has prompted the decision to commercialize its activities. This was expected by 2024, however the research operations will not be over by then. The equipment too is aging and therefore cannot be extended beyond 2028. This creates the necessity for NASA to find means of safe deorbiting of the ISS.

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Flight to Darwin, number 3105, now boarding

White knuckles, sweaty palms, this single seat in a line of 9 is my only safe zone, all of five minutes and we are inseparable. This aching fear, holding me down to my seat, my safe zone. Final call for flight number 3105 to Darwin. This was the day, this was the time, and this […]

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Robbery: Flight Attendant and Officer

Robbery Tanisha Barkley, Desiree Brickles, LaTosha Call, Kimberly Clark, Robin Crumble, Tammara Dimond and Keith Dostie Everest University Introduction to Interviews and Interrogations Professor David Farrow March 16, 2013 Robbery Crime Scenario There was a diamond heist at Brussels Airport involving two suspects, one male and one female. The female had the diamonds hidden on […]

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Flight or Fight Response

Flight or Fight Specific Purpose: Inform people about the “Fight or Flight” response and the better understand the way the body responds to certain stress. I. Introduction: Driving your parents home one night you begin to lose control of the car and crash. You’re able to escape the car unharmed, but notice one of your […]

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