Footnote to Youth Critical Essay

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How my brother Leon brought home a wife is a short story by author Manuel E. Arguilla. Manuel E. Arguilla was well known for his short stories such as this story and many of his works were published throughout the 1940s especially. Arguilla lived between 1911 and 1944, at which point he was captured, tortured and killed by the Japanese army. The story ‘How my brother Leon brought home a wife’ is perhaps the most successful and popular of Arguilla’s short stories.

The story is written from the point of view of a young boy called Baldo and his recollections of the night that he met his brother’s wife, Maria, for the first time. The story is descriptive and eloquently written and makes you feel as though you were there yourself. The story starts with Baldo meeting Leon and Maria and how he took them on a ride home through the fields near their home on a cart pulled by their family bull. The story describes the smell, look and feel of the fields and the surrounding areas and speaks well of Maria, describing her as gentle and full of laughter.

It becomes apparent that Leon is taking Maria to meet his family for the first time, and she is nervous about meeting them, his father especially. As the story continues Baldo, Leon (who is called Noel in the story as this is Maria’s nickname for him, Baldo presumes that this is because Noel is Leon backwards) and Maria all arrive at the family home. The story ends with the three of them entering the father’s room upstairs and they begin talking to him. If you would like to read the story yourself you can follow this link to read the story yourself.

Footnote To Youth Analysis

Explain the title Footnote to Youth By Jose Garcia Villa.  In what way is it suitable to the story?

Footnote to youth is the title of the story. It is said that it is a footnote to youth because it is abrief reminder for the Filipinos especially the youth of what a real life could be today. It also indicatesthe sources or the causes why youth act this way. It furthermore adds comment, whether it is apositive or negative, on today’s generation. Yes it is suitable to the story because it gives a warningfor those apathetic youth that ones committed mistake because of their stubbornness. .

What is the predominant element in the story- plot, theme, character, and setting? Explain.

The predominant element on this story is the character and the setting. The setting has a greatimpact because the story definitely empathizes the situations of a Filipino person and it is appealingfor us because we are at the poverty line. The setting is most likely the same setting as today. Alsothe characters, because characters had their own definite description, their conversation is differentfrom one another, and they act as unique as their personality it enhances the story even more.

Theact of the characters seems to bring up the whole story.

Who is the single main character about whom the story centers? Explain.

The story centers at the character of Dodong. Dodong is the one who represents the typicalyouth that experiencing a lot of uncertainties in life that make him realize that he sacrifice his youthjust for the sake of proving himself that he can manage his own life because he is matured enough toface this life’s challenges.

What sort of conflict confronts the leading character or characters? Explain.

Internal conflict confronts the leading character.

Internal character in a way that he wasstruggling if he can managed himself to have a family because he knows that he is in the legal agethat he can be independent and can definitely choose the right from wrong. But… “Footnote to Youth” was written by Jose Garcia Villa. Story: The sun was salmon and hazy in the west. Dodong thought to himself he would tell his father about Teang when he got home, after he had unhitched the carabao from the plow, and let it to its shed and fed it. He was hesitant about saying it, but he wanted his father to know. What he had to say was of serious import as it would mark a climacteric in his life.

Dodong finally decided to tell it, at a thought came to him his father might refuse to consider it. His father was silent hard-working farmer who chewed areca nut, which he had learned to do from his mother, Dodong’s grandmother. I will tell it to him. I will tell it to him. The ground was broken up into many fresh wounds and fragrant with a sweetish earthy smell. Many slender soft worms emerged from the furrows and then burrowed again deeper into the soil. A short colorless worm marched blindly to Dodong’s foot and crawled calmly over it. Dodong go tickled and jerked his foot, flinging the worm into the air.

Dodong did not bother to look where it fell, but thought of his age, seventeen, and he said to himself he was not young any more. Dodong unhitched the carabao leisurely and gave it a healthy tap on the hip. The beast turned its head to look at him with dumb faithful eyes. Dodong gave it a slight push and the animal walked alongside him to its shed. He placed bundles of grass before it land the carabao began to eat. Dodong looked at it without interests. Dodong started homeward, thinking how he would break his news to his father. He wanted to marry, Dodong did.

He was seventeen, he had pimples on his face, the down on his upper lip already was dark-these meant he was no longer a boy. He was growing into a man–he was a man. Dodong felt insolent and big at the thought of it although he was by nature low in statue. Thinking himself a man grown Dodong felt he could do anything. He walked faster, prodded by the thought of his virility. A small angled stone bled his foot, but he dismissed it cursorily. He lifted his leg and looked at the hurt toe and then went on walking. In the cool sundown he thought wild you dreams of himself and Teang. Teang, his girl.

She had a small brown face and small black eyes and straightglossy hair. How desirable she was to him. She made him dream even during the day. Dodong tensed with desire and looked at the muscles of his arms. Dirty. This field work was healthy, invigorating but it begrimed you, smudged you terribly. He turned back the way he had come, then marched obliquely to a creek. Dodong stripped himself and laid his clothes, a gray undershirt and red kundiman shorts, on the grass. The he went into the water, wet his body over, and rubbed at it vigorously. He was not long in bathing, then he marched homeward again.

The bath made him feel cool. It was dusk when he reached home. The petroleum lamp on the ceiling already was lighted and the low unvarnished square table was set for supper. His parents and he sat down on the floor around the table to eat. They had fried fresh-water fish, rice, bananas, and caked sugar. Dodong ate fish and rice, but didnot partake of the fruit. The bananas were overripe and when one held them they felt more fluid than solid. Dodong broke off a piece of the cakes sugar, dipped it in his glass of water and ate it. He got another piece and wanted some more, but he thought of leaving the remainder for his parents.

Dodong’s mother removed the dishes when they were through and went out to the batalan to wash them. She walked with slow careful steps and Dodong wanted to help her carry the dishes out, but he was tired and now felt lazy. He wished as he looked at her that he had a sister who could help his mother in the housework. He pitied her, doing all the housework alone. His father remained in the room, sucking a diseased tooth. It was paining him again, Dodong knew. Dodong had told him often and again to let the town dentist pull it out, but he was afraid, his father was. He did not tell that to Dodong, but Dodong guessed it.

Afterward Dodong himself thought that if he had a decayed tooth he would be afraid to go to the dentist; he would not be any bolder than his father. Dodong said while his mother was out that he was going to marry Teang. There it was out, what he had to say, and over which he had done so much thinking. He had said it without any effort at all and without self-consciousness. Dodong felt relieved and looked at his father expectantly. A decrescent moon outside shed its feeble light into the window, graying the still black temples of his father. His father looked old now. “I am going to marry Teang,” Dodong said.

His father looked at him silently and stopped sucking the broken tooth. The silence became intense and cruel, and Dodong wished his father would suck that troublous tooth again. Dodong was uncomfortable and then became angry because his father kept looking at him without uttering anything. “I will marry Teang,” Dodong repeated. “I will marry Teang. ” His father kept gazing at him in inflexible silence and Dodong fidgeted on his seat. “I asked her last night to marry me and she said… yes. I want your permission. I… want… it…. ” There was impatient clamor in his voice, an exacting protest at this coldness, this indifference.

Dodong looked at his father sourly. He cracked his knuckles one by one, and the little sounds it made broke dully the night stillness. “Must you marry, Dodong? ” Dodong resented his father’s questions; his father himself had married. Dodong made a quick impassioned easy in his mind about selfishness, but later he got confused. “You are very young, Dodong. ” “I’m… seventeen. ” “That’s very young to get married at. ” “I… I want to marry… Teang’s good girl. ” “Tell your mother,” his father said. “You tell her, tatay. ” “Dodong, you tell your inay. ” “You tell her. ” “All right, Dodong. ” “You will let me marry Teang? “Son, if that is your wish… of course… ” There was a strange helpless light in his father’s eyes. Dodong did not read it, too absorbed was he in himself. Dodong was immensely glad he had asserted himself. He lost his resentment for his father. For a while he even felt sorry for him about the diseased tooth. Then he confined his mind to dreaming of Teang and himself. Sweet young dream…. Dodong stood in the sweltering noon heat, sweating profusely, so that his camiseta was damp. He was still like a tree and his thoughts were confused. His mother had told him not to leave the house, but he had left.

He had wanted to get out of it without clear reason at all. He was afraid, he felt. Afraid of the house. It had seemed to cage him, to compares his thoughts with severe tyranny. Afraid also of Teang. Teang was giving birth in the house; she gave screams that chilled his blood. He did not want her to scream like that, he seemed to be rebuking him. He began to wonder madly if the process of childbirth was really painful. Some women, when they gave birth, did not cry. In a few moments he would be a father. “Father, father,” he whispered the word with awe, with strangeness.

He was young, he realized now, contradicting himself of nine months comfortable… “Your son,” people would soon be telling him. “Your son, Dodong. ” Dodong felt tired standing. He sat down on a saw horse with his feet close together. He looked at his callused toes. Suppose he had ten children… What made him think that? What was the matter with him? God! He heard his mother’s voice from the house: “Come up, Dodong. It is over. ” Of a sudden he felt terribly embarrassed as he looked at her. Somehow he was ashamed to his mother of his youthful paternity. It made him feel guilty, as if he had taken something no properly his.

He dropped his eyes and pretended to dust dirt off his kundiman shorts. “Dodong,” his mother called again. “Dodong. ” He turned to look again and this time saw his father beside his mother. “It is a boy,” his father said. He beckoned Dodong to come up. Dodong felt more embarrassed and did not move. What a moment for him. His parents’ eyes seemed to pierce him through and he felt limp. He wanted to hide from them, to run away. “Dodong, you come up. You come up,” he mother said. Dodong did not want to come up and stayed in the sun. “Dodong. Dodong. ” “I’ll… come up. ” Dodong traced tremulous steps on the dry parched yard.

He ascended the bamboo steps slowly. His heart pounded mercilessly in him. Within, he avoided his parents eyes. He walked ahead of them so that they should not see his face. He felt guilty and untrue. He felt like crying. His eyes smarted and his chest wanted to burst. He wanted to turn back, to go back to the yard. He wanted somebody to punish him. His father thrust his hand in his and gripped it gently. “Son,” his father said. And his mother: “Dodong… ” How kind were their voices. They flowed into him, making him strong. “Teang? ” Dodong said. “She’s sleeping. But you go in… His father led him into the small sawali room. Dodong saw Teang, his girl wife, asleep on the papag with her black hair soft around her face. He did not want her to look that pale… Dodong wanted to touch her, to push away that stray wisp of hair that touched her lips, but again that feeling of embarrassment came over him and before his parents he did not want to be demonstrative. The hilot was wrapping the child, Dodong heart it cry. The thin voice pierced him queerly. He could not control the swelling of happiness in him. You give him to me. You give him to me,” Dodong said.

Many more children came. For six successive years a new child came along. Dodong did not want any more children, but they came. It seemed the coming of children could not be helped. Dodong got angry with himself sometimes. Teang did not complain, but the bearing of children told on her. She was shapeless and thin now, even if she was young. There was interminable work to be done. Cooking. Laundering. The house. The children. She cried sometimes, wishing she had not married. She did not tell Dodong this, not wishing him to dislike her. Yet she wished she had not married. Not even Dodong, whom she loved.

There has been another suitor, Lucio, older than Dodong by nine years, and that was why she had chosen Dodong. Young Dodong. Seventeen. Lucio had married another after her marriage to Dodong, but he was childless until now. She wondered if she had married Lucio, would she have borne him children. Maybe not either. That was a better lot. But she loved Dodong… Dodong whom life had made ugly. One night, as he lay beside his wife, he roe and went out of the house. He stood in the moonlight, tired and querulous. He wanted to ask questions and somebody to answer him. He w anted to be wise about many things.

One of them was why life did not fulfill all of Youth’s dreams. Why it must be so. Why one was forsaken… after Love. Dodong would not find the answer. Maybe the question was not to be answered. It must be so to make Youth. Youth. Youth must be dreamfully sweet. Dreamfully sweet. Dodong returned to the house humiliated by himself. He had wanted to know a little wisdom but was denied it. * * * When Blas was eighteen he came home one night very flustered and happy. It was late at night and Teang and the other children were asleep. Dodong heard Blas’s steps, for he could not sleep well of nights.

He watched Blas undress in the dark and lie down softly. Blas was restless on his mat and could not sleep. Dodong called him name and asked why he did not sleep. Blas said he could not sleep. “You better go to sleep. It is late,” Dodong said. Blas raised himself on his elbow and muttered something in a low fluttering voice. Dodong did not answer and tried to sleep. “Itay … ,” Blas called softly. Dodong stirred and asked him what was it. “I am going to marry Tena. She accepted me tonight. ” Dodong lay on the red pillow without moving. “Itay, you think it over. ” Dodong lay silent. “I love Tena and…

I want her. ” Dodong rose f ROM his mat and told Blas to follow him. They descended to the yard, where everything was still and quiet. The moonlight was cold and white. “You want to marry Tena,” Dodong said. He did not want Blas to marry yet. Blas was very young. The life that would follow marriage would be heard… “Yes. ” “Must you marry? ” Blas’s voice stilled with resentment. “I will marry Tena. ” Dodong kept silent, hurt. “You have objections, Itay? ” Blas asked acridly. “Son… n-none… ” (But truly, God, I don’t want Blas to marry yet… not yet. I don’t want Blas to marry yet…. But he was helpless. He could not do anything. Youth must triumph… now. Love must triumph… now. Afterwards… it will be life. As long ago Youth and Love did triumph for Dodong… and then Life. Dodong looked wistfully at his young son in the moonlight. He felt extremely sad and sorry for him.


  • Dodong – main character of the story who got married at the age of 17
  • Teang – regretted marrying at an early age
  • Lucio – Teang’s other suitor who got married after she did and who’s childless until now
  • Blas – Dodong and Teang’s oldest son who followed their footsteps in the end. Blas contemplated to marry Tona when he was 18
  • Tona – woman whom Blas wants to marry.


Dodong wanted to marry Teang and asked his father’s permission. Thinking that since they are young, their love would be short, he allowed them to get married. After nine months, Teang gave birth to a child named Blas. For six consecutive years, a new child came along. Teang did not complain even thought she secretly regretted being married at an early age. Sometimes she even wondered if she would have the same life if Lucio, her other suitor who was nine years older than Dodong, was the one she married.

Lucio has had no children since the time he married. When Teang and Dodong were twenty they looked like they were fifty. When Blas was 18, he told his father that he would marry Tona. Dodong did not object, but tried to make Blas think twice before rushing to marriage – because Dodong doesn’t want Blas to end up like him.

It simply tells the story of an older person who made a mistake in the past who ended up with a not so pleasurable life. Then he had a son who is like him when he was young. His son is hasty in making the decision to get married, just like he was when he was 17.

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