Global Warming the Causes and Effects on Weather and Oceans

Alizadeh-Choobari, O, & Najafi, M. 2018. Extreme weather events in Iran under a changing climate. Climate Dynamics. 50: 249-260.

The researchers reviewed monthly and yearly weather records from sixteen “ground stations across Iran” (Alizadeh-Choobari and Najafi, 2018) from 1951 to 2013. The research indicated that Iran is experiencing an increase in temperature “by 1.3 C since 1951” and the “1990s was warmer than any other decade” (Alizadeh-Choobari, et. al, 2018). The weather in Iran is switching to have more warmer days and less colder days. They have also noticed that the drier areas of the region are experiencing more droughts than ever before. The amount of precipitation have “decreased by 2% per decade (-8 mm per decade) for the period 1951 to 2013” (Alizadeh-Choobari, et. al, 2018). Parts of Iran that were considered a “semi dry climate” are now becoming “extremely dry” (Alizadeh-Choobari, et. al, 2018). However, colder and high altitude are experiencing an overabundance of precipitation.

Cooper, C., Swindles, G., Savov, I., Schmidt, A., & Bacon, K., (2018). Evaluating the relationship between climate change and volcanism. Earth-Science Reviews. 177. 238- 247.

The researchers reviewed how volcanos and the climate change will interact with one another. As the temperatures increase they believe that we will see an increase in the amount of volcanic eruptions. They believe that the volcanic eruptions will then in turn effect the temperature which could help cool the surface area and planet. However, the eruptions of the volcanoes will release “sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide” in the form of ash into the atmosphere which can “dramatically alter the Earth’s climate for several years to decades” (Cooper, Swindles, Savov, Schmidt and Bacon, 2018). The release of these chemicals into the air can impact the citizens living in the area causing them to get sick or have to evacuate the region. The research also states that the melting of glaciers could cause a “decompression” (Copper, et. al, 2018) on the Earth’s mantle which could cause a volcano to erupt. They state that a small move or shift of the glacier can be significant enough to cause the eruption.

Dahl, K. A., Fitzpatrick, M. F., & Spanger-Siegfried, E. (2017). Sea level rise drives increased tidal flooding frequency at tide gauges along the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts: Projections for 2030 and 2045. Plos ONE, 12(2), 1-23.

The researchers reviewed data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, tide gauges and based on projections of rising sea levels to estimate and “determine the frequency of minor tidal flooding events” (Dahl, Fitzpatrick and Spanger-Siegfield, 2017). The study focused on the fifty-two locations along the East and Gulf coasts. They are trying to determine how the rising sea levels will impact communities with tidal flooding in 2030 and 2045. The study showed that flooding will increase at these locations as the sea rise. They state that places that have only minor flooding now will have more extensive tidal flooding by 2045. Some of the communities could double or triple the amount of tidal floods that they receive annually. This can result in people losing homes, lives and confined to their homes with no way out. They suggest that communities begin to prepare now before the flooding starts.

Fassnacht, S. R., Cherry, M. L., Venable, N. H., & Saavedra, F. (2016). Snow and albedo climate change impacts across the United States Northern Great Plains. Cryosphere, 10(1), 329- 339.

The researchers reviewed data from twenty weather stations to see how much snow fell in the Northern Great Plains between November through to March from 1981 to 2010. The Northern Great Plains includes “western parts of Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota” and “eastern parts of Colorado and Wyoming” (Fassnacht, Cherry, Venable, Saavedra, 2016). They were looking to see if the rise in average temperatures due to global warming was affecting the amount of snow that fell in this areas. There objective was to see if the total amount of snow and number of days that snow fell was being reduced over the years.

They also wanted to see if these changes “impacted modelled albedo over the winter” months (Fassnacht, et. al, 2016). The results showed that the majority of the station had more days with less snow then days with an increase in snow fall. Seven of the stations that had a decrease in the amount of snow fall also saw that there was a decrease in the “winter energy balance” (Fassnacht, et. al, 2016). However, “four of the stations saw an increase in the winter energy balance” (Fassnacht, et. al, 2016). They also point out that the change in temperature and weather patterns over all of the stations and areas are not consistent with one another. They results also showed that the solar radiation levels had increase but only slightly.

Gutmann, E. D., Rasmussen, R. M., Changhai, L., Ikeda, K., Bruyere, C. L., Done, J. M., Garre, L., Fris-Hansen, P., & Veldore, V. (2018). Changes in hurricanes from a 13-yr convection-permitting pseudo-global warming Simulation. Journal of Climate. 31(9): 3643-3657.

The study focused on “the thermodynamic effects of changes in climate on a collection of hurricane characteristics” (Gutmann, Rasmussen, Changhai, Bruyere, Done, Garre, Fris-Hansen, and Veldore, 2018). The study examined thirty-two hurricanes that occurred from 2001 to 2013. They then attempted to recreate these hurricanes using a “high-resolution regional climate modeling experiment” (Gutmann, et. al, 2018) along with information obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. They then applied a simulated “pseudo-global warming methodology” (Gutmann, et. al, 2018) to the modeling experiment.

The study looked at wind speed, amount of precipitation, and air temperature and was able to duplicate thirty of the hurricanes. The results showed an increase in wind speeds with some reaching over 50 mph. They also believe that we may have more category 3 to 5 hurricanes due to the increase of wind speeds seen in this study. The study also revealed that the amount of precipitation would dramatically increase to “rates by approximately 24%” (Gutmann, et. al, 2018). With more precipitation falling from the storms we will experience more flooding.

Kim, D, Park, S, Woo, S, Jeong, K, & Lee, E. 2017. Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge around the Southeastern Coast of Korea. Journal of Coastal Research. 79: 239-243.

Researchers wanted to examine the effects of global warming and the rising sea levels on the intensity and frequently of storms on the coast of Korea. They reviewed the sea levels and surge heights trends over the last forty years on the southern and eastern coastlines. The results showed that there was a decrease in the amount of storms that had actually touched landfall over the last decade. However, the data did relieve that the surge heights where higher on the southern coast. They believe that the rise of surges is higher because the southern coast is where the typhoons occur. The researchers did state that atmospheric pressure on the southern coast is affected by climate change.

Liu, Q., & Liu, S. (2016). Response of glacier mass balance to climate change in the Tianshan Mountains during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Dynamics, 46(1/2), 303-316.

The researchers reviewed annual reports from the “World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS)” and “directly measured mass balance data from 1957 to 2009” (Liu and Liu, 2016) to see if there are historical differences in the sizes of the glazier throughout the years. Their study showed that each of the five glaziers in Tianshan are “decreasing in total ice volume and mass balance” (Liu, et. al, 2016). The study did show that each glazier is changing at different rates and they believe it is due to there location. They also state that each glacier has different response to climate change and the increase in temperature.

Masciopinto, C., Liso, I. S. (2016). Assessment of the impact of sea-level rise due to climate change on coastal groundwater discharge. Science of the Total Environment, 569: 672- 680.

Researchers conducted a study in Murgia and Salento in Italy to forecast how the rising sea levels will affect the fresh groundwater reserves in the twenty-second century. In their study they collected “ultrasonic sea-level measurements collected at three tide-gauge stations from 2000 to 2014” (Masciopinto and Liso, 2016). The results of the study show that the groundwater in these towns and coastal peninsula could be depleted with fresh water by the twenty-second century. They note that countries such as Spain and Mexico are already experiencing the effects of sea water intrusion in their groundwater. This intrusion has polluted the water and left the water unusable for drinking or irrigation.

Seager, R, Naik, N, Vogel, L. (2012). Does global warming cause intensified interannual hydroclimate variability?. Journal of Climate. 25: 9. 3355-3372.

The researchers wanted to know if the “interannual precipitation (P) minus evaporation (E)” (Seager & Vogel, 2012) would increase as the climate becomes warmer during the twenty-first century. They compared yearly data from “the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (SMIP3)” (Seager et. al, 2012) to see if there were differences in circulation and humidity between the twentieth and the twenty-first centuries. There studied showed that the “total interannual P – E” did increase to “40% or more over the equatorial Pacific and at high latitudes” (Seager et. al, 2012). However, the most common increase was by 10% across the globe. Yet they found that “eastern subtropical Pacific Ocean” and “subtropical Atlantic and southwestern North America” (Seager et. al, 2012) that the amount is actually decreasing. Their research also showed that as the humidity would increase in the warmer atmospheres. However, they note that there will be a decrease in humidity over “equatorial Atlantic Ocean, northeast Brazil and Southern North America” (Seager et. al, 2012).

Ürusan, A., Uzel, T., & Eren, K. (2014). Calculation of Greenland and Antarctica Glaciers’ Weights Causing Some Earthquakes and Volcanic Activities. Acta Physica Polonica, A, 125(2).

The researchers explain how the weight of the Greenland and Antarctica glaciers hold down “plates on the mantle of earth” (Ürusan, Uzel and Eren, 2014). They explain that due to climate change the ice from the glaciers is melting which can then release the pressure on these tectonic plates. This can cause the plates to cause earthquakes and cause “more volcanic activities” (Ürusan et. al, 2014) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They believe that the “melting of the Greenland glacier may trigger a newer potential active fault between Gakkel Ridge and Pacific Ridge” (Urusan et. al, 2014).

Wu, P., Ridley, J., Pardaens, A., Levine, R., & Lowe, J. (2015). The reversibility of CO induced climate change. Climate Dynamics, 45(3/4), 745-754.

The researchers conducted an experiment to see if there is a way to reverse or reduce climate change by lowering the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and oceans. The study showed that there is no way to reverse the effects of CO2 in order to completely reverse climate change. They found that the sea levels are “particularly sensitive to the rate of CO2 reduction” (Ridley, Pardaens, Levine and Lowe, 2015). They saw that reducing the CO2 in the ocean caused the sea levels to rise even higher. They also state that “thermal expansion of the oceans continues for many decades after CO2 concentration starts to decrease” (Ridley et. al, 2015).

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