History of Cuba

The country is officially known as the Republic of Cuba and consists of the island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. The territory used to be inhabited by the Taíno people up until the Spanish arrived in 1492. In the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States, and then gained its independence in 1902.

In 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but all the political radicalization and social strife created a coup and a dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista’s rule led to his eventual removal from leadership in January 1959. Afterward communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro was established. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba.

The country was a point of dispute during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of the few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the Communist Party is enshrined deep within the constitution.

Many have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses. Under Castro, Cuba was involved in a broad range of military and humanitarian activities in many countries. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America. It is a country with people, culture, and customs from diverse origins, including the indigenous peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, and the introduction of African slaves.

Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations and many other organizations just like it. It’s currently one of the planned economies, and it is dominated by the tourism industry and exports such as skilled labor, sugar, tobacco, and coffee. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 72nd in the world. It also ranks highly in utilities like health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development that were set up by the WWF.

The Republic of Cuba is one of the last remaining socialist countries following the Marxist–Leninist ideology. The Constitution of 1976, which defined Cuba as a socialist republic, was replaced by the Constitution of 1992, which is influenced by the ideas of José Martí and the political and social ideas of Marx and many others.

The constitution describes the Communist Party of Cuba as the “leading force of society and of the state.” The First Secretary of the Communist Party is also President of the Council of State (President of Cuba) and President of the Council of Ministers (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister of Cuba).

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