Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management

Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In an economy, people indulge in economic activity to support their consumption requirements. Savings arise from deferred consumption, to be invested, in anticipation of future returns. Investments could be made into financial assets, like stocks, bonds, and similar instruments or into real assets, like houses, land, or commodities. The aim of Portfolio Manager is to provide a brief overview of three aspects of investment: * The various options available to an investor in financial instruments. The tools used in modern finance to optimally manage the financial portfolio. * Lastly the professional asset management industry as it exists today. Returns more often than not differ across their risk profiles, generally rising with the expected risk, i. e. , higher the returns, higher the risk. The underlying objective of portfolio management is therefore to create a balance between the trade-off of returns and risk across multiple asset classes. Portfolio management is the art of managing the expected return requirement for the corresponding risk tolerance.
Simply put, a good portfolio manager’s objective is to maximize the return subject to the risk-tolerance level or to achieve a pre-specified level of return with minimum risk. 1. Investment and Its objectives Mini Content 2. 1 Define Investment 2. 2 Defining Investment Objectives 2. 3 Goals and Needs 2. 4 Types of investors 2. 5 Investment Process 2. 6 Investments available in India Define Investment Investment is putting money into something with the expectation of gain that upon thorough analysis has a high degree of security for the principal amount, as well as security of return, within an expected period of time. . The action or process of investing money for profit or material result. 2. Two main classes of investment are (i) Fixed income investment such as bonds, fixed deposits, preference shares, and (ii) Variable income investment such as business ownership (equities), or property ownership. In economics, investment means creation of capital or goods capable of producing other goods or services. Expenditure on education and health is recognized as an investment in human capital, and research and development in intellectual capital. Return on investment (ROI) is a key measure of an organization’s performance.
DEFINING YOUR INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES: Investing wisely is a function of your speci? c needs and goals. Each investor has different objectives that need to be met depending on age, income, planned activities, and attitudes about risk. How can you work with your investment advisor to best determine which investments are right for you? Among the important factors to consider are personal status, plans, and constraints. Some of the issues that you and your advisor should consider in de? ning the objectives that are right for you are listed below. Goals and Needs: You may have speci? goals and requirements that you want your investment portfolio to ful? ll. For example, you may be funding college for children, business expansion, travel plans, or retirement needs. You should identify these goals and needs clearly with your investment advisor so that his or her recommendations for your portfolio can assist you in meeting them. Age: Your age is an important consideration when deciding how much risk to assume. Portfolio assets that are riskier and that will ? uctuate more over time may be appropriate for younger investors but not for others.

An individual who does not expect to liquidate the assets in his or her portfolio for a number of years has more time to recover from a market downturn, while an investor close to retirement may be more likely to prefer stable assets and capital preservation. Age also affects the choice between income-earning securities and those oriented toward capital gains. An investor who is employed and near peak earning power will probably want to minimize paying taxes, and will therefore lean toward investments that do not provide current income. Income :
Both your absolute income level and your income requirements in? uence your investment objectives in several ways. First, income, like age, in? uences the choice between dividend-paying or interest-paying investments, and those whose primary return is in the form of capital gains. You may prefer income-producing investments if you need to supplement or replace earned income. Your income level also affects your investment choices because it determines your tax rate. Low-tax-bracket investors — generally those whose income is lower — will be more likely to prefer income-producing investments.
High-tax-rate investors are more likely to choose tax-deferred or tax-sheltered assets. Income also may in? uence risk preferences. High income investors may be more willing to choose higher risk investments since they can more easily contribute additional investment capital should they sustain losses. Taxes Your after-tax return is the return that matters. You should fully inform your investment advisor about your tax rate and any special tax circumstances that might apply to you. This will determine whether you should seek tax exempt or tax-sheltered securities as a part of your portfolio.
The appropriateness of income or capital gains should be discussed in the context of your personal situation, so you may want your investment advisor to consult with your accountant. Occupation Your occupation also can affect portfolio objectives. Some professions produce more stable incomes than others, enabling the investor to tolerate more investment ? uctuations. Your profession also may determine other assets. For example, does your job provide an adequate retirement plan, or must you fund your retirement from your investment portfolio?
If your employer provides a stock-purchase plan, this may be a substantial part of your personal wealth, and you should consider it as a diversi? cation issue when you make other portfolio choices. If you receive tax-quali? ed or tax-deferred assets from your job, these also will in? uence your investment decisions. Wealth Investment objectives should take into consideration the assets you hold outside the portfolio. For example, if you have substantial equity in your home, you may want to minimize real estate holdings in your ? nancial assets, or you may need to consider a different type of real estate asset.
If you hold illiquid assets, then new investments may emphasize liquidity. The value of your existing assets will probably affect your tolerance for risk. In addition, your level of wealth has probably in? uenced your lifestyle. Maintaining a desired lifestyle into retirement and throughout will need to be factored into your investment objectives. Time Horizon An important consideration in setting investment objectives is your time horizon. When do you expect to liquidate a portfolio? Should you choose assets of short or long maturity?
Do you have time to recover from a declining market, or is capital preservation important to meet an immediate ? nancial need? Liquidity Liquidity is the ease with which you can convert your assets to cash at fair market value. It is essential that you recognize the need to convert your assets into cash at the appropriate times. Do you require a portfolio that can be liquidated easily, or can you afford to wait? Since greater liquidity generally results in lower return, it is necessary to give serious consideration to the inherent tradeoffs. Tolerance for Risk Your tolerance for risk is a very personal decision, and a question that is dif? ult for many investors to answer. In general, markets tend to provide higher returns in exchange for bearing higher risks. Often you will ? nd that the investments with the highest long-term returns are very volatile in the short run. It is important to be honest with yourself in assessing whether you are comfortable with market volatility, and the level you can tolerate. While it is easy in hindsight to wish you had invested in a risky segment of the market that has performed well recently, a more realistic view is to look forward at the risk that might occur in the future. Other Special Circumstances
Are there other considerations of which your advisor should be aware? Consider here any special needs, goals, or problems you have not already addressed. Types of investors There is wide diversity among investors, depending on their investment styles, mandates, horizons, and assets under management. Primarily, investors are either individuals,in that they invest for themselves or institutions, where they invest on behalf of others. Risk appetites and return requirements greatly vary across investor classes and are key determinants of the investing styles and strategies followed as also the constraints faced.
A quick look at the broad groups of investors in the market illustrates the point. Individuals While in terms of numbers, individuals comprise the single largest group in most markets, the size of the portfolio of each investor is usually quite small. Individuals differ across their risk appetite and return requirements. Those averse to risk in their portfolios would be inclined towards safe investments like Government securities and bank deposits, while others may be risk takers who would like to invest and / or speculate in the equity markets.
Requirements of individuals also evolve according to their life-cycle positioning. For example, in India, an individual in the 25-35 years age group may plan for purchase of a house and vehicle, an individual belonging to the age group of 35-45 years may plan for children’s education and children’s marriage, an individual in his or her fifties would be planning for post-retirement life. The investment portfolio then changes depending on the capital needed for these requirements. Institutions
Institutional investors comprise the largest active group in the financial markets. As mentioned earlier, institutions are representative organizations, i. e. , they invest capital on behalf of others, like individuals or other institutions. Assets under management are generally large and managed professionally by fund managers. Examples of such organizations are mutual funds, pension funds, insurance companies, hedge funds, endowment funds, banks, private equity and venture capital firms and other financial institutions. We briefly describe some of them here. Mutual funds
Individuals are usually constrained either by resources or by limits to their knowledge of the investment outlook of various financial assets (or both) and the difficulty of keeping abreast of changes taking place in a rapidly changing economic environment. Given the small portfolio size to manage, it may not be optimal for an individual to spend his or her time analyzing various possible investment strategies and devise investment plans and strategies accordingly. Instead, they could rely on professionals who possess the necessary expertise to manage their funds within a broad, pre-specified plan.
Mutual funds pool investors’ money and invest according to pre-specified, broad parameters. These funds are managed and operated by professionals whose remunerations are linked to the performance of the funds. The profit or capital gain from the funds, after paying the management fees and commission is distributed among the individual investors in proportion to their holdings in the fund. Mutual funds vary greatly, depending on their investment objectives, the set of asset classes they invest in, and the overall strategy they adopt towards investments. Pension funds
Pension funds are created (either by employers or employee unions) to manage the retirement funds of the employees of companies or the Government. Funds are contributed by the employers and employees during the working life of the employees and the objective is to provide benefits to the employees post their retirement. The management of pension funds may be in-house or through some financial intermediary. Pension funds of large organizations are usually very large and form a substantial investor group for various financial instruments. Endowment funds
Endowment funds are generally non-profit organizations that manage funds to generate a steady return to help them fulfill their investment objectives. Endowment funds are usually initiated by a non-refundable capital contribution. The contributor generally specifies the purpose (specific or general) and appoints trustees’ to manage the funds. Such funds are usually managed by charitable organizations, educational organization, non-Government organizations, etc. The investment policy of endowment funds needs to be approved by the trustees of the funds. Insurance companies (Life and Non-life)
Insurance companies, both life and non-life, hold large portfolios from premiums contributed by policyholders to policies that these companies underwrite. There are many different kinds of insurance policies and the premiums differ accordingly. For example, unlike term insurance, assurance or endowment policies ensure a return of capital to the policyholder on maturity, along with the death benefits. The premium for such policies may be higher than term policies. The investment strategy of insurance companies depends on actuarial estimates of timing and amount of future claims.
Insurance companies are generally conservative in their attitude towards risks and their asset investments are geared towards meeting current cash flow needs as well as meeting perceived future liabilities. Banks Assets of banks consist mainly of loans to businesses and consumers and their liabilities comprise of various forms of deposits from consumers. Their main source of income is from what is called as the interest rate spread, which is the difference between the lending rate (rate at which banks earn) and the deposit rate (rate at which banks pay).
Banks generally do not lend 100% of their deposits. They are statutorily required to maintain a certain portion of the deposits as cash and another portion in the form of liquid and safe assets (generally Government securities), which yield a lower rate of return. These requirements, known as the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR ratio) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR ratio) in India, are stipulated by the Reserve Bank of India and banks need to adhere to them. In addition to the broad categories mentioned above, investors in the markets are also classified based on the objectives with which they trade.
Under this classification, there are hedgers, speculators and arbitrageurs. Hedgers invest to provide a cover for risks on a portfolio they already hold, speculators take additional risks to earn supernormal returns and arbitrageurs take simultaneous positions (say in two equivalent assets or same asset in two different markets etc. ) to earn riskless profits arising out of the price differential if they exist. Another category of investors include day-traders who trade in order to profit from intra-day price changes.
They generally take a position at the beginning of the trading session and square off their position later during the day, ensuring that they do not carry any open position to the next trading day. Traders in the markets not only invest directly in securities in the so called cash markets, they also invest in derivatives, instruments that derive their value from the underlying securities. Types of investment in Indian Financial Market Banking SectorIntroductionThe Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank.
Though the banking industry is currently dominated by public sector banks, numerous private and foreign banks exist. India’s government-owned banks dominate the market. Their performance has been mixed, with a few being consistently profitable. Several public sector banks are being restructured, and in some the government either already has or will reduce its ownership. Banks in India can be categorized into non-scheduled banks and scheduled banks. Scheduled banks constitute of commercial banks and co-operative banks. There are about 67,000 branches of Scheduled banks spread across India.
During the first phase of financial reforms, there was a nationalization of 14 major banks in 1969. This crucial step led to a shift from Class banking to Mass banking. Since then the growth of the banking industry in India has been a continuous process. As far as the present scenario is concerned the banking industry is in a transition phase. The Public Sector Banks (PSBs), which are the foundation of the Indian Banking system account for more than 78 per cent of total banking industry assets. Unfortunately they are burdened with excessive Non Performing assets (NPAs), massive manpower and lack of modern technology.
On the other hand the Private Sector Banks in India are witnessing immense progress. They are leaders in Internet banking, mobile banking, phone banking, ATMs. On the other hand the Public Sector Banks are still facing the problem of unhappy employees. There has been a decrease of 20 percent in the employee strength of the private sector in the wake of the Voluntary Retirement Schemes (VRS). As far as foreign banks are concerned they are likely to succeed in India. Induslnd Bank was the first private bank to be set up in India.
IDBI, ING Vyasa Bank, SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd, Dhanalakshmi Bank Ltd, Karur Vysya Bank Ltd, Bank of Rajasthan Ltd etc are some Private Sector Banks. Banks from the Public Sector include Punjab National bank, Vijaya Bank, UCO Bank, Oriental Bank, Allahabad Bank, Andhra Bank etc. ANZ Grindlays Bank, ABN-AMRO Bank, American Express Bank Ltd, Citibank etc are some foreign banks operating in India. Private and foreign banksThe RBI has granted operating approval to a few privately owned domestic banks; of these many commenced banking business.
Foreign banks operate more than 150 branches in India. The entry of foreign banks is based on reciprocity, economic and political bilateral relations. An inter-departmental committee approves applications for entry and expansion. RBI bankingThe Reserve Bank of India is the central banking institution. It is the sole authority for issuing bank notes and the supervisory body for banking operations in India. It supervises and administers exchange control and banking regulations, and administers the government’s monetary policy. It is also responsible for granting licenses for new bank branches. 5 foreign banks operate in India with full banking licenses. Several licenses for private banks have been approved. Despite fairly broad banking coverage nationwide, the financial system remains inaccessible to the poorest people in India. Some of its main objectives are regulating the issue of bank notes, managing India’s foreign exchange reserves, operating India’s currency and credit system with a view to securing monetary stability and developing India’s financial structure in line with national socio-economic objectives and policies. Indian banking systemThe banking system has three tiers.
These are the scheduled commercial banks; the regional rural banks which operate in rural areas not covered by the scheduled banks; and the cooperative and special purpose rural banks. Scheduled and non scheduled banksThere are approximately 80 scheduled commercial banks, Indian and foreign; almost 200 regional rural banks; more than 350 central cooperative banks, 20 land development banks; and a number of primary agricultural credit societies. In terms of business, the public sector banks, namely the State Bank of India and the nationalized banks, dominate the banking sector.
RBI restrictionsThe Reserve Bank of India lays down restrictions on bank lending and other activities with large companies. These restrictions, popularly known as “consortium guidelines” seem to have outlived their usefulness, because they hinder the availability of credit to the non-food sector and at the same time do not foster competition between banks. Indian vs. Foreign banksMost Indian banks are well behind foreign banks in the areas of customer funds transfer and clearing systems. They are hugely over-staffed and are unlikely to be able to compete with the new private banks that are now entering the market.
While these new banks and foreign banks still face restrictions in their activities, they are well-capitalized, use modern equipment and attract high-caliber employees. Grey futureOne more reason being the opacity of the The Reserve Bank of India. This does not mean a forecast of doom for the Indian banking sector the kind that has washed out south east Asia. And also not because Indian banks are healthy. We still have no clue about the real non-performing assets of financial institutions and banks. Many banks are now listed. That puts additional responsibility of sharing information.
It is now clear that it was the financial sector that caused the sensational meltdown of some Asian nations. India is not Thailand, Indonesia and Korea. Borrowed investment in property in India is low and property prices have already fallen, letting out steam gently. Our micro-meltdown has already been happening. | Bank Deposit Schemes * Bank Deposit Schemes for Resident Indians * Bank Deposit Schemes for Non Resident IndiansBank deposits are preferred more for their liquidity and safety than for the returns thereon. Various banking and other facilities that one gets by opening a bank account viz.
ATM cards, ATM-cum-Debit cards, Credit Cards, On-line / Internet banking, collection / realization of cheques and other instruments, safe deposit lockers, better customer service etc. are also a major reason in favour of bank deposits vis-a-vis other options. The deposit accounts offered by banks fall broadly under following categories :Bank Deposit Schemes for Resident IndiansFollowing deposit accounts are offered by banks to Resident Indians: * Savings Bank Accounts: These accounts are opened for savings, liquidity and safety of funds and convenience in making day to day expenses and also earning some interest income.
These accounts inculcate the habit of thrift in account holders. View salient features of Savings Bank accounts. * Current Accounts: These accounts are opened for liquidity and safety of funds and for meeting day to day expenses. Current accounts are opened and maintained primarily by business and commercial organizations. No income is earned on these deposits. Individuals usually open these accounts for availing overdraft facility as overdraft facility is not available in Savings Bank accounts. View salient features of Current Accounts. * Recurring Deposit Accounts: These accounts are opened for saving purpose only.
Some fixed amount is deposited at monthly intervals for a pre-fixed term. These accounts generally earn higher interest than Savings Bank Accounts. View salient features of Recurring Deposit accounts in banks. * Fixed Deposit or Term Deposit Accounts: These accounts are opened for investing funds for fixed terms to earn higher interests. Usually deposit for a longer period of time earns higher Interest Rate. The account holders have option of getting periodic payment of interest at monthly/quarterly intervals or re-investing the interest to be paid on maturity with the principal.
View salient features of Term / Fixed Deposit Accounts in banks. * Special Bank Term Deposit Scheme – Bank Deposit Scheme under section 80C: This is the only Tax Saving Scheme available with banks. The accounts opened under this scheme are eligible for relief under Section 80C of the Income Tax, Act. View salient features of Bank Deposit Scheme for tax saving. Bank Deposit Schemes for Non-Resident IndiansFollowing deposit accounts are offered by banks to Non Resident Indians: * Non-Resident External (NRE) Accounts: These Accounts can be opened by Non Resident Indians individually or jointly with other Non Resident Indian(s).
The accounts can be opened in Savings Bank, Current Account, Term/Fixed Deposit with monthly/quarterly interest payment or Term/Fixed Deposit with interest reinvestment types. The account holders can grant Power of Attorney to Resident Indians to operate upon their Savings Bank or Current Accounts. The accounts are maintained in Indian Rupees. View salient features of NRE Accounts * * Foreign Currency Non Resident (FCNR) Accounts: These Accounts can be opened by Non Resident Indians individually or jointly with other Non Resident Indian(s).
The accounts can be opened as Term/Fixed Deposit with the option of monthly/quarterly Interest payment or of re-investing the interest for payment on maturity with the principal. The accounts are maintained in foreign currencies viz. US Dollars, Euros, Sterling Pounds, Canadian Dollars, Australian Dollars and Japanese Yen. View salient features of FCNR accounts. * Non-Resident Ordinary (NRO) Accounts: These accounts can be opened by Non Resident Indians individually or jointly with other Non Resident or Resident Indian(s). These accounts can also be opened by Resident Indians by foreign inward remittance.
The accounts are maintained in Indian Rupees. View salient features of NRO Accounts. Mutual fundsMutual fund is a mechanism for pooling the resources by issuing units to the investors and investing funds in securities in accordance with objectives as disclosed in offer document. Investments in securities are spread across a wide cross-section of industries and sectors and thus the risk is reduced. Diversification reduces the risk because all stocks may not move in the same direction in the same proportion at the same time. Mutual fund issues units to the investors in accordance with quantum of money invested by them.
Investors of mutual funds are known as unit holders. The profits or losses are shared by the investors in proportion to their investments. The mutual funds normally come out with a number of schemes with different investment objectives which are launched from time to time. A mutual fund is required to be registered with Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) which regulates securities markets before it can collect funds from the public. Schemes according to Maturity Period:A mutual fund scheme can be classified into open-ended scheme or close-ended scheme depending on its maturity period.
Open-ended Fund/ SchemeAn open-ended fund or scheme is one that is available for subscription and repurchase on a continuous basis. These schemes do not have a fixed maturity period. Investors can conveniently buy and sell units at Net Asset Value (NAV) related prices which are declared on a daily basis. The key feature of open-end schemes is liquidity. Close-ended Fund/ SchemeA close-ended fund or scheme has a stipulated maturity period e. g. 5-7 years. The fund is open for subscription only during a specified period at the time of launch of the scheme.
Investors can invest in the scheme at the time of the initial public issue and thereafter they can buy or sell the units of the scheme on the stock exchanges where the units are listed. In order to provide an exit route to the investors, some close-ended funds give an option of selling back the units to the mutual fund through periodic repurchase at NAV related prices. SEBI Regulations stipulate that at least one of the two exit routes is provided to the investor i. e. either repurchase facility or through listing on stock exchanges.
These mutual funds schemes disclose NAV generally on weekly basis. Schemes according to Investment Objective:A scheme can also be classified as growth scheme, income scheme, or balanced scheme considering its investment objective. Such schemes may be open-ended or close-ended schemes as described earlier. Such schemes may be classified mainly as follows:Growth / Equity Oriented SchemeThe aim of growth funds is to provide capital appreciation over the medium to long- term. Such schemes normally invest a major part of their corpus in equities.
Such funds have comparatively high risks. These schemes provide different options to the investors like dividend option, capital appreciation, etc. and the investors may choose an option depending on their preferences. The investors must indicate the option in the application form. The mutual funds also allow the investors to change the options at a later date. Growth schemes are good for investors having a long-term outlook seeking appreciation over a period of time. Income / Debt Oriented SchemeThe aim of income funds is to provide regular and steady income to investors.
Such schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds, corporate debentures, Government securities and money market instruments. Such funds are less risky compared to equity schemes. These funds are not affected because of fluctuations in equity markets. However, opportunities of capital appreciation are also limited in such funds. The NAVs of such funds are affected because of change in interest rates in the country. If the interest rates fall, NAVs of such funds are likely to increase in the short run and vice versa.
However, long term investors may not bother about these fluctuations. Balanced FundThe aim of balanced funds is to provide both growth and regular income as such schemes invest both in equities and fixed income securities in the proportion indicated in their offer documents. These are appropriate for investors looking for moderate growth. They generally invest 40-60% in equity and debt instruments. These funds are also affected because of fluctuations in share prices in the stock markets. However, NAVs of such funds are likely to be less volatile compared to pure equity funds.
Money Market or Liquid FundThese funds are also income funds and their aim is to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income. These schemes invest exclusively in safer short-term instruments such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and inter-bank call money, government securities, etc. Returns on these schemes fluctuate much less compared to other funds. These funds are appropriate for corporate and individual investors as a means to park their surplus funds for short periods. Gilt FundThese funds invest exclusively in government securities.
Government securities have no default risk. NAVs of these schemes also fluctuate due to change in interest rates and other economic factors as is the case with income or debt oriented schemes. Index FundsIndex Funds replicate the portfolio of a particular index such as the BSE Sensitive index, S;P NSE 50 index (Nifty), etc These schemes invest in the securities in the same weightage comprising of an index. NAVs of such schemes would rise or fall in accordance with the rise or fall in the index, though not exactly by the same percentage due to some factors known as “tracking error” in technical terms.
Necessary disclosures in this regard are made in the offer document of the mutual fund scheme. There are also exchange traded index funds launched by the mutual funds which are traded on the stock exchanges. Postal savings| Postal Services in India India possesses the largest postal network in the world with 154,866 post offices, of which 139,040 (89. 78%) are in rural areas and 15,826 (10. 22%) are in urban areas. It has 25,464 departmental PO s and 129,402 ED BPOs. spread all over the country . Post offices in India play a vital role in the rural areas.
They connect these rural areas with the rest of the country and also provide banking facilities in the absence of banks in the rural areas. Post Offices offer various types of schemes. These are: * Monthly Income Scheme * National Savings Certificate * Public Provident Fund * Time Deposit Scheme * Senior Citizen’s Saving Scheme * Saving Account Monthly Income Scheme (MIS) This scheme appeals to conservative investors with traditional values, and for good reason. This scheme offers monthly income and is a safe, guaranteed-by-the-government option. For retirees, widows and others looking or a steady income, it can be ideal. Read on to learn more. The Post Office Monthly Income Scheme, or PO MIS, is offered by Indian Post Offices. A lump sum amount is deposited with the post office and monthly interest earned each month is paid out to you. As the scheme is offered by post offices, it is backed by the government. Thus, the PO MIS is one of the safest investments available. Salient Features: * Interest rate of 8. 5% per annum payable monthly w. e. f. 01. 04. 2012 * Maturity period is 5 years. * No Bonus on Maturity w. e. f. 01. 12. 2011. * No tax deduction at source (TDS). * No tax rebate is applicable. Minimum investment amount is Rs. 1500/- or in multiple thereafter. * Maximum amount is Rs. 4. 50 lakhs in a single account and Rs. 9 lakhs in a joint account. * Auto credit facility of monthly interest to saving account if accounts are at the same post office. * Account can be opened by an individual, two/three adults jointly, and a minor through a guardian. * Non-Resident Indian / HUF cannot open an Account. * Minors have a separate limit of investment of Rs. 3 lakhs and the same is not clubbed with the limit of guardian. * Facility of premature closure of account after 1 year but on or before 3 years @ 2. 0% discount. * Deduction of 1% if account is closed prematurely at any time after three years. * Suitable scheme for retired employees/ senior citizens and for those who need regular monthly income. National Saving Certificate (NSC) National Savings Certificates (NSC) are certificates issued by Department of post, Government of India and are available at all post office counters in the country. This scheme is specially designed for Government employees, Businessmen and other salaried classes who are IT assesses. It is a long term safe savings option for the investor.
Trust and HUF cannot invest. The scheme combines growth in money with reductions in tax liability as per the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The duration of a NSC scheme is 5 years. Salient Features: * NSC VIII Issue (5 years) – Interest rate of 8. 6% per annum w. e. f. 01. 04. 2012 * NSC IX Issue (10 years) – Interest rate of 8. 9% per annum w. e. f. 01. 04. 2012 * Minimum investment Rs. 100/-. No maximum limit for investment. * No tax deduction at source. * Investment up to Rs 1,00,000/- per annum qualifies for Income Tax Rebate under NSC – section 80C of IT Act. Certificates can be kept as collateral security to get loan from banks. * Trust and HUF cannot invest. * A single holder type certificate can be purchased by an adult for himself or on behalf of a minor or to a minor. * The interest accruing annually but deemed to be reinvested will also qualify for deduction under NSC – section 80C of IT Act. Public Provident Fund (PPF) Public Provident Fund, popularly known as PPF, is a savings cum tax saving instrument. It also serves as a retirement planning tool for many of those who do not have any structured pension plan covering them.
The balances in PPF account cannot be attached by any authority normally. Salient Features: * Interest rate of 8. 8% per annum w. e. f. 01. 04. 2012. * Minimum deposit is 500/- per annum. Maximum deposit is Rs. 1,00,000/- per annum * The scheme is for 15 years. * Investment up to Rs 1,00,000/- per annum qualifies for Income Tax Rebate under section 80C of IT Act. * Interest is completely tax-free. * Deposits can be made in lumpsum or in 12 installments. * One deposit with a minimum amount of Rs 500/- is mandatory in each financial year. * Withdrawal is permissible from 6th financial year. Loan facility available from 3rd financial year upto 5th financial year. The rate of interest charged on loan taken by the subscriber of a PPF account on or after 01. 12. 2011 shall be 2% p. a. However, the rate of interest of 1% p. a. shall continue to be charged on the loans already taken or taken up to 30. 11. 2011. * Free from court attachment. * Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) not eligible. * An individual cannot invest on behalf of HUF (Hindu Undivided Family) or Association of persons. * Ideal investment option for both salaried as well as self employed classes.
Time Deposit Scheme A Post-Office Time Deposit Account (RDA) is a  banking service similar to a Bank Fixed Deposit  offered by Department of post, Government of India at all post office counters in the country. The scheme is meant for those investors who want to deposit a lump sum of money for a fixed period; say for a minimum period of one year to two years, three years and a maximum period of five years. Investor gets a lump sum (principal + interest) at the maturity of the deposit. Time Deposits scheme return a lower, but safer, growth in investment. Salient Features: 1 year, 2 year, 3 year and 5 year time deposits can be opened. * Interest payable annually but compounded quarterly: PERIOD| RATE OF INTEREST| One Year| 8. 2%| Two Years| 8. 3%| Three Years| 8. 4%| Five Years| 8. 5%| * Minimum amount of deposit is Rs 200/- and in multiples of Rs 200/- thereafter. No maximum limit. * Investment up to Rs 1,00,000/- per annum qualifies for Income Tax Rebate under section 80C of IT Act. * Interest income is taxable. * Facility of redeposit on maturity of an account. * In case of premature closure of 1 year, 2 Year, 3 Year or 5 Year account on or after 01. 12. 011 between 6 months to one year from the date of deposit, simple interest at the rate applicable to from time to time to post office savings account shall be payable. * 2 year, 3 year or 5 year accounts on or after 01. 12. 2011 if closed after one year, interest on such deposits shall be calculated at a discount of 1% on the rate specified for respective period as mentioned in the concerned table given under Rule 7 of Post office Time Deposit Rules. * Account can be pledged as security against a loan to banks/ Government institutions. * Any individual (a single adult or two adults jointly) can open an account. Group Accounts, Institutional Accounts and Misc. account not permissible. * Trust, Regimental Fund or Welfare Fund not permissible to invest. Senior Citizen’s Saving Scheme A new savings scheme called ‘Senior Citizens Savings Scheme’ has been notified with effect from August 2, 2004. The Scheme is for the benefit of senior citizens and maturity period of the deposit will be five years, extendable by another three years. Initially the scheme will be available through designated post offices through out the country. Salient Features: * Interest @ 9. 3% per annum from the date of deposit on quarterly basis w. e. f. 1. 04. 2012 * Minimum deposit is Rs 1000 and multiples thereof. Maximum limit of 15 lakhs. * Maturity period is 5 years and can be extended for a further period of 3 years. * Age should be 60 years or more, and 55 years or more but less than 60 years who has retired under a Voluntary Retirement Scheme or a Special Voluntary Retirement Scheme on the date of opening of the account within three months from the date of retirement. * No age limit for the retired personnel of Defence services provided they fulfill other specified conditions. * The account may be opened in individual capacity or jointly with spouse. TDS is deducted at source on interest if the interest amount is more than Rs 10,000/- per annum. * Investment up to Rs 1,00,000/- per annum qualifies for Income Tax Rebate under section 80C of IT Act. * Interest can be automatically credited to savings account provided both the accounts stand in the same post office. * Premature closure is allowed after one year on deduction of 1. 5% of the deposit and after 2 years on deduction of 1%. * No withdrawal permitted before the expiry of a period of 5 years from the date of opening of the account. * Non-resident Indians (NRIs) and Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) are not eligible to open an account.
Saving Account Post office saving account is similar to a savings account in a bank. It is a safe instrument to park those funds, which you might need to liquidate fully or partially at very short notice. Post office savings accounts are especially suited for those living in rural and semi-rural areas where the reach of banks is very limited. Salient Features: * Rate of interest 4. 0% per annum * Minimum amount Rs 50/- in case of non-cheque account, Rs. 500/- in case of cheque account. * Maximum balance permissible is Rs 1,00,000/- in a single account and Rs 2,00,000/- in a joint account. Interest Tax Free. * Any individual can open an account. * Cheque facility available. * Group Account, Institutional Account, other Accounts like Security Deposit account ; Official Capacity account are not permissible. Equity Indian Equity Market The Indian Equity Market is also the other name for Indian share market or Indian stock market. The forces of the market depend on monsoons, global fundings flowing into equities in the market and the performance of various companies. The Indian market of equities is transacted on the basis of two major stock indices, National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. NSE) and The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the trading being carried on in a dematerialized form. The physical stocks are in liquid form and cannot be sold by the investors in any market. Two types of funds are there in the Indian Equity Market; Venture Capital Funds and Private Equity Funds. The equity indexes are correlated beyond the boundaries of different countries with their exposure to common calamities like monsoon which would affect both India and Bangladesh or trade integration policies and close connection with the foreign investors.
From 1995 onwards, both in terms of trade integration and FIIs India has made an advance. All these have established a close relationship between the stock market indexes of India stock market and those of other countries. The Stock derivatives add up all futures and options on all individual stocks. This stock index derivative was found to have gone up from 12 % of NSE derivatives turnover in 2002 to 35 % in 2004. The Indian Equity Market also comprise of the Debt Market, dominated by primary dealers, banks and wholesale investors.
Indian Equity Market at present is a lucrative field for the investors and investing in Indian stocks are profitable for not only the long and medium-term investors, but also the position traders, short-term swing traders and also very short term intra-day traders. In terms of market capitalization, there are over 2500 companies in the BSE chart list with the Reliance Industries Limited at the top. The SENSEX today has rose from 1000 levels to 8000 levels providing a profitable business to all those who had been investing in the Indian Equity Market.
There are about 22 stock exchanges in India which regulates the market trends of different stocks. Generally the bigger companies are listed with the NSE and the BSE, but there is the OTCEI or the Over the Counter Exchange of India, which lists the medium and small sized companies. There is the SEBI or the Securities and Exchange Board of India which supervises the functioning of the stock markets in India. In the Indian market scenario, the large FMCG companies reached the top line with a double-digit growth, with their shares being attractive for investing in the Indian stock market.
Such companies like the Tata Tea, Britannia, to name a few, have been providing a bustling business for the Indian share market. Other leading houses offering equally beneficial stocks for investing in Indian Equity Market, of the SENSEX chart are the two-wheeler and three-wheeler maker Bajaj Auto and second largest software exporter Infosys Technologies. Other than some restricted industries, foreign investment in general enjoys a majority share in the Indian Equity Market. Foreign Institutional Investors (FII) need to register themselves with the SEBI and the RBI for operating in Indian stock exchanges.
In fact from the Indian stock market analysis it is known that in some specific industries foreigners can have even 100% shares. In the last few years with the facility of the Online Stock Market Trading in India, it has been very convenient for the FIIs to trade in the Indian stock market. From an analysis on the Indian Equity Market it can be said that the increase in the foreign investments over the years no doubt have accentuated the dynamism of the Indian market of equities. Foreign investors are allowed to buy Indian equity for the purpose of converting the equity into ADR or GDR.
Thus, the growing financial capital markets of India being encouraged by domestic and foreign investments is becoming a profitable business more with each day. If all the economic parameters are unchanged Indian Equity Market will be conducive for the growth of private equities and this will lead to an overall improvement in the Indian economy. Insurance Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment.
An insurer, or insurance carrier, is a company selling the insurance; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. The amount to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice. The transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer’s promise to compensate (indemnify) the insured in the case of a financial (personal) loss.
The insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated. The business of Insurance essentially means defraying risks attached to any activity over time (including life) and sharing the risks between various entities, both persons and organizations. Insurance companies (ICs) are important players in financial markets as they collect and invest large amounts of premium. Insurance products are multipurpose and offer the following benefits: Protection to the investors * Accumulate savings * Channelize savings into sectors needing huge long term investments. Insurance involves pooling funds from many insured entities (known as exposures) to pay for the losses that some may incur. The insured entities are therefore protected from risk for a fee, with the fee being dependent upon the frequency and severity of the event occurring. In order to be insurable, the risk insured against must meet certain characteristics in order to be an insurable risk.
Insurance is a commercial enterprise and a major part of the financial services industry, but individual entities can also self-insure through saving money for possible future losses. Insurability Risk which can be insured by private companies typically share seven common characteristics: 1. Large number of similar exposure units: Since insurance operates through pooling resources, the majority of insurance policies are provided for individual members of large classes, allowing insurers to benefit from the law of large numbers in which predicted losses are similar to the actual losses.
Exceptions include Lloyd’s of London, which is famous for insuring the life or health of actors, sports figures and other famous individuals. However, all exposures will have particular differences, which may lead to different premium rates. 2. Definite loss: The loss takes place at a known time, in a known place, and from a known cause. The classic example is death of an insured person on a life insurance policy. Fire, automobile accidents, and worker injuries may all easily meet this criterion. Other types of losses may only be definite in theory.
Occupational disease, for instance, may involve prolonged exposure to injurious conditions where no specific time, place or cause is identifiable. Ideally, the time, place and cause of a loss should be clear enough that a reasonable person, with sufficient information, could objectively verify all three elements. 3. Accidental loss: The event that constitutes the trigger of a claim should be fortuitous, or at least outside the control of the beneficiary of the insurance. The loss should be pure, in the sense that it results from an event for which there is only the opportunity for cost.
Events that contain speculative elements, such as ordinary business risks or even purchasing a lottery ticket, are generally not considered insurable. 4. Large loss: The size of the loss must be meaningful from the perspective of the insured. Insurance premiums need to cover both the expected cost of losses, plus the cost of issuing and administering the policy, adjusting losses, and supplying the capital needed to reasonably assure that the insurer will be able to pay claims. For small losses these latter costs may be several times the size of the expected cost of losses.
There is hardly any point in paying such costs unless the protection offered has real value to a buyer. 5. Affordable premium: If the likelihood of an insured event is so high, or the cost of the event so large, that the resulting premium is large relative to the amount of protection offered, it is not likely that the insurance will be purchased, even if on offer. Further, as the accounting profession formally recognizes in financial accounting standards, the premium cannot be so large that there is not a reasonable chance of a significant loss to the insurer.
If there is no such chance of loss, the transaction may have the form of insurance, but not the substance. 6. Calculable loss: There are two elements that must be at least estimable, if not formally calculable: the probability of loss, and the attendant cost. Probability of loss is generally an empirical exercise, while cost has more to do with the ability of a reasonable person in possession of a copy of the insurance policy and a proof of loss associated with a claim presented under that policy to make a reasonably definite and objective evaluation of the amount of the loss recoverable as a result of the claim. . Limited risk of catastrophically large losses: Insurable losses are ideally independent and non-catastrophic, meaning that the losses do not happen all at once and individual losses are not severe enough to bankrupt the insurer; insurers may prefer to limit their exposure to a loss from a single event to some small portion of their capital base. Capital constrains insurers’ ability to sell earthquake insurance as well as wind insurance in hurricane zones. In the US, flood risk is insured by the federal government.
In commercial fire insurance it is possible to find single properties whose total exposed value is well in excess of any individual insurer’s capital constraint. Such properties are generally shared among several insurers, or are insured by a single insurer who syndicates the risk into the reinsurance market. Legal When a company insures an individual entity, there are basic legal requirements. Several commonly cited legal principles of insurance include: 1. Indemnity – the insurance company indemnifies, or compensates, the insured in the case of certain losses only up to the insured’s interest. . Insurable interest – the insured typically must directly suffer from the loss. Insurable interest must exist whether property insurance or insurance on a person is involved. The concept requires that the insured have a “stake” in the loss or damage to the life or property insured. What that “stake” is will be determined by the kind of insurance involved and the nature of the property ownership or relationship between the persons. 3. Utmost good faith – the insured and the insurer are bound by a good faith bond of honesty and fairness. Material facts must be disclosed. 4.
Contribution – insurers which have similar obligations to the insured contribute in the indemnification, according to some method. 5. Subrogation – the insurance company acquires legal rights to pursue recoveries on behalf of the insured; for example, the insurer may sue those liable for insured’s loss. 6. Causa proxima, or proximate cause – the cause of loss (the peril) must be covered under the insuring agreement of the policy, and the dominant cause must not be excluded 7. Mitigation – In case of any loss or casualty, the asset owner must attempt to keep the loss to a minimum, as if the asset was not insured.
Indemnification To “indemnify” means to make whole again, or to be reinstated to the position that one was in, to the extent possible, prior to the happening of a specified event or peril. Accordingly, life insuranceis generally not considered to be indemnity insurance, but rather “contingent” insurance (i. e. , a claim arises on the occurrence of a specified event). There are generally two types of insurance contracts that seek to indemnify an insured: 1. an “indemnity” policy, and 2. a “pay on behalf” or “on behalf of” policy. The difference is significant on paper, but rarely material in practice.
An “indemnity” policy will never pay claims until the insured has paid out of pocket to some third party; for example, a visitor to your home slips on a floor that you left wet and sues you for $10,000 and wins. Under an “indemnity” policy the homeowner would have to come up with the $10,000 to pay for the visitor’s fall and then would be “indemnified” by the insurance carrier for the out of pocket costs (the $10,000). [4][5] Under the same situation, a “pay on behalf” policy, the insurance carrier would pay the claim and the insured (the homeowner in the above example) would not be out of pocket for anything.
Most modern liability insurance is written on the basis of “pay on behalf” language. An entity seeking to transfer risk (an individual, corporation, or association of any type, etc. ) becomes the ‘insured’ party once risk is assumed by an ‘insurer’, the insuring party, by means of a contract, called an insurance policy. Generally, an insurance contract includes, at a minimum, the following elements: identification of participating parties (the insurer, the insured, the beneficiaries), the premium, the period of coverage, the particular loss event covered, the amount of coverage (i. . , the amount to be paid to the insured or beneficiary in the event of a loss), and exclusions (events not covered). An insured is thus said to be “indemnified” against the loss covered in the policy. When insured parties experience a loss for a specified peril, the coverage entitles the policyholder to make a claim against the insurer for the covered amount of loss as specified by the policy. The fee paid by the insured to the insurer for assuming the risk is called the premium.
Insurance premiums from many insureds are used to fund accounts reserved for later payment of claims — in theory for a relatively few claimants — and for overhead costs. So long as an insurer maintains adequate funds set aside for anticipated losses (called reserves), the remaining margin is an insurer’s profit. Types of Insurances * Life Insurance * General Insurance Life Insurance Life insurance is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary sum of money (the “benefits”) upon the death of the insured person.
Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness may also trigger payment. The policy holder typically pays a premium, either regularly or as a lump sum. Other expenses (such as funeral expenses) are also sometimes included in the benefits. The advantage for the policy owner is “peace of mind”, in knowing that the death of the insured person will not result in financial hardship for loved ones and lenders. Life policies are legal contracts and the terms of the contract describe the limitations of the insured events.
Specific exclusions are often written into the contract to limit the liability of the insurer; common examples are claims relating to suicide, fraud, war, riot and civil commotion. Life-based contracts tend to fall into two major categories: * Protection policies – designed to provide a benefit in the event of specified event, typically a lump sum payment. A common form of this design is term insurance. * Investment policies – where the main objective is to facilitate the growth of capital by regular or single premiums.
Common forms (in the US) are whole life, universal life and variable life policies. General Insurance General insurance or non-life insurance policies, including automobile and homeowners policies, provide payments depending on the loss from a particular financial event. General insurance typically comprises any insurance that is not determined to be life insurance. It is called property and casualty insurance in the U. S. and Non-Life Insurance in Continental Europe. Commercial lines products are usually designed for relatively small legal entities.
These would include workers’ comp (employers liability), public liability, product liability, commercial fleet and other general insurance products sold in a relatively standard fashion to many organisations. There are many companies that supply comprehensive commercial insurance packages for a wide range of different industries, including shops, restaurants and hotels. Personal lines products are designed to be sold in large quantities. This would include autos (private car), homeowners (household), pet insurance, creditor insurance and others. ACORD which is the insurance industry global standards organisation.
ACORD has standards for personal and commercial lines and has been working with the Australian General Insurers to develop those XML standards, standard applications for insurance, and certificates of currency. PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT A good way to begin understanding what portfolio management is (and is not) may be to define the term portfolio. In a business context, we can look to the mutual fund industry to explain the term’s origins. Morgan Stanley’s Dictionary of Financial Terms offers the following explanation: If you own more than one security, you have an investment portfolio.
You build the portfolio by buying additional stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or other investments. Your goal is to increase the portfolio’s value by selecting investments that you believe will go up in price. According to modern portfolio theory, you can reduce your investment risk by creating a diversified portfolio that includes enough different types, or classes, of securities so that at least some of them may produce strong returns in any economic climate. Note that this explanation contains a number of important ideas: * A portfolio contains many investment vehicles. Owning a portfolio involves making choices — that is, deciding what additional stocks, bonds, or other financial instruments to buy; when to buy; what and when to sell; and so forth. Making such decisions is a form of management. * The management of a portfolio is goal-driven. For an investment portfolio, the specific goal is to increase the value. * Managing a portfolio involves inherent risks. Objectives of Portfolio Management:- The objective of portfolio management is to invest in securities is securities in such a way that one maximizes one’s returns and minimizes risks in order to achieve one’s investment objective.
A good portfolio should have multiple objectives and achieve a sound balance among them. Any one objective should not be given undue importance at the cost of others. Presented below are some important objectives of portfolio management. 1. Stable Current Return: – Once investment safety is guaranteed, the portfolio should yield a steady current income. The current returns should at least match the opportunity cost of the funds of the investor. What we are referring to here current income by way of interest of dividends, not capital gains. 2. Marketability: –
A good portfolio consists of investment, which can be marketed without difficulty. If there are too many unlisted or inactive shares in your portfolio, you will face problems in encasing them, and switching from one investment to another. It is desirable to invest in companies listed on major stock exchanges, which are actively traded. 3. Tax Planning: – Since taxation is an important variable in total planning, a good portfolio should enable its owner to enjoy a favorable tax shelter. The portfolio should be developed considering not only income tax, but capital gains tax, and gift tax, as well.
What a good portfolio aims at is tax planning, not tax evasion or tax avoidance. 4. Appreciation in the value of capital: A good portfolio should appreciate in value in order to protect the investor from any erosion in purchasing power due to inflation. In other words, a balanced portfolio must consist of certain investments, which tend to appreciate in real value after adjusting for inflation. 5. Liquidity: The portfolio should ensure that there are enough funds available at short notice to take care of the investor’s liquidity requirements.
It is desirable to keep a line of credit from a bank for use in case it becomes necessary to participate in right issues, or for any other personal needs. 6. Safety of the investment: The first important objective of a portfolio, no matter who owns it, is to ensure that the investment is absolutely safe. Other considerations like income, growth, etc. , only come into the picture after the safety of your investment is ensured. Investment safety or minimization of risks is one of the important objectives of portfolio management.
There are many types of risks, which are associated with investment in equity stocks, including super stocks. Bear in mind that there is no such thing as a zero risk investment. More over, relatively low risk i

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