The essay evaluates job analysis of Senior Personnel Management as a career of interest to many students and professionals. The study involves analysis of Senior Personnel Management position by using Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model) as a method of conducting job analysis. It also evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAQ model as a tool for conducting job analysis. The paper evaluates different performance appraisal methods, which may be applicable in Senior Personnel Management, as well as various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method.
One must note the importance of personnel management since it deals with the management of the most valuable asset of an organization.
Job Analysis of Senior Personnel Management by using the PAQ Model
Personnel management is a part of management that entails effective control and use of human resources as important resources of an organization. That is, personnel management must ensure that employees grow to be valuable resources of an organization after hiring, training, and developing them (Spector, 2012).
Therefore, Senior Personnel Managers must conduct regular job analysis to determine several aspects of personnel management. These may involve human resource planning, identification of need gaps, employees’ duties, recruitment, and selection of the right workforce, orientation, training, and development (Reddy, 2004). In addition, the role may also include a review of benefits and salaries, incentives and rewards, performance appraisal, dispute resolution, and effective communication with employees at different levels in an organization.
The PAQ model consists of a well-developed questionnaire for conducting job analysis to evaluate certain job elements and determine their relationships with human characteristics. The model has 195 job characteristics for evaluation, which focus on broad human behaviors at work. This ensures a comprehensive analysis of all relevant areas in job analysis.
Senior Personnel Managers or human resource personnel complete the PAQ questionnaires in-house. Managers or employees who participate in the study should receive orientation on PAQ requirements. The model has a series of detailed questions, which aim to determine various job characteristics, such as interpersonal activities, information input, work output, mental processes, work situation and job context and other miscellaneous aspects.
Evaluation of the reliability and validity of the Job Analysis
Survey instruments need to be reliable and valid to present expected outcomes. Determining reliability of the job analysis instrument involves conducting a pilot test to establish reliability of the study questionnaires. The aim is to ensure that the instrument is consistent with what it is designed to measure. Moreover, the evaluator must follow correct methodical procedures in instrument development, testing, and evaluation to make outcomes useful for the job analysis.
The evaluator establishes validity of the questionnaire by reviewing it with a panel of experts on the job analysis of Personnel Management and conducting a test. The process would determine the validity of the questionnaire. That is, the evaluation instrument has to evaluate what it is designed to evaluate. It must also represent the study content, must be suitable for various participants and comprehensive to gather enough data for the study.
Relaibility and validity of the PAQ model provide several advantages to evaluators. For instance, the model is highly structured. This offers an ease of data quantification for evaluators. The PAQ model involves both data gathering and analysis with computer-based programs, which provide an ease of analysis and quick results with minimal errors. The model relies on a taxonomic approach, which enhances job comparison. Overall, some evaluators have noted that the PAQ model is highly reliable because the same results can be obtained on subsequent administrations.
Evaluation of different performance appraisal methods for Senior Personnel Management
Senior Personnel Managers require a critical incident method to evaluate their performances. The critical incident technique identifies and elaborates certain issues where employees performed well or poorly and need improvement in subsequent appraisals. Therefore, evaluation is specific and review previous activities. Managers must maintain evaluation logs and record all critical incidents of personnel when they occur. When the rating period ends, the evaluator must review all critical incidents to determine employees’ work performance. The method allows evaluators to gather all critical incidents that may affect employee appraisal and performance.
Senior Personnel Management may also use the method of 360-degree performance appraisal technique. The process is confidential and anonymous. Therefore, employees can evaluate their colleagues, including seniors with confidence. The 360-degree method entails personal appraisal, employee appraisal, junior appraisal, and superior appraisal. The appraisal method measures employee skills, such as goal setting, listening, and planning capabilities and capacities. It also measures leadership abilities, teamwork, and dispositional factors. Hence, the method shows a relationship among employees. The 360-degree aims at identifying individuals’ goals with organizational strategies, collecting, and sharing feedback for continuous improvement and talent development. It provides feedback for evaluators on their teams, managers, peers, and other areas of interests.
Performance appraisal methods allow personnel managers to understand their strengths and weaknesses (Reddy, 2004). They could use such information to develop their leadership skills and improve performance.
Various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method
The critical incident technique provides employee performance on incidents that affect performance over time. It is an effective method of ensuring that performance appraisal focuses on critical aspects of employee job performance.
However, the method has some shortcomings, which limit its effectiveness. It focuses on superiors rather than junior employees. In some instances, the evaluator may concentrate on negative incidents than positive ones. Recording of events may be cumbersome while the entire processes may be marred with a series of complaints and excuses.
The 360-degree provides a comprehensive process of evaluating employee performance as it enhances credibility of the appraisal process. Feedback from peers helps in enhancing self-development, employee commitment, and business focus. Ideas from diverse sources could enhance accuracy of the assessment process. This method allows colleagues and managers to assess performances anonymously through confidential processes. Thus, the outcome could reflect the actual case in an organization.
On the other hand, the 360-degree appraisal method has some weaknesses. It is an elaborate, complex process, which requires a lot of time to administer. In some cases, the process may lead to suspicion and rumors in an organization because of its anonymous approach. In addition, the result requires effective management and implementation to realize meaningful outcomes. Employees engage in several evaluations and exchange of feedback, which may lead to staff tension (Seifert, Yukl & McDonald, 2003).
The essay has focused on job analysis of Senior Personnel Management as a career of interest to many students and professionals. Personnel management involves evaluation of several aspects that relate to human resources. These may include tasks, employee behaviors, job characteristics, performance, and personnel requirement. The PAQ model is an effective approach for job analysis due to its comprehensive nature, which enhances its reliability and validity. While there are many methods of performance appraisal, the 360-degree and critical incident approaches may be effective in the case of Senior Personnel Managers. However, both approaches have some limitations, which hinder their effectiveness.
Reddy, R. (2004). Personnel Management. Darya Ganj, Delhi: APH Publishing. Web.
Seifert, C., Yukl, G., & McDonald, R. (2003). Effects of multisource feedback and a feedback facilitator on the influence of behavior of managers toward subordinates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 561–569. Web.
Spector, P. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Web.