Mongols: An Ancient Mongol Dynasty and Its Empire
The mongols were among the numerous nomadic tribes who lived in central Asia, they lived in harsh climate which was very dry, the land being infertile, not suitable to plant vegetables/fruits. So the agriculture didn’t develop well in Mongolia. Mongol life centered on herding animals, especially horses. Mongols lived as nomadic clans, constantly searching for better pasture lands. As a result of how they lived, the mongols were tough warriors who occasionally raided nearby settlements. From 1200 to 1206, a clan leader Genghis khan unified the mongols. Genghis Khan built a powerful mongol army and began a 21 year conquest to Eurasia. Under Genghis and later khans, the mongols conquered central Asia, china, the islamic empire, Russia and Korea. The mongol empire stretched from the pacific ocean to eastern Europe. The mongols created this massive empire by having excellent horsemen, used the horse saddle to shoot arrows while riding. If enemies refused they would kill the entire population, “ In time of action, when attacking and assaulting, they are like trained wild beasts out after game”(juvanini, 285) As the mongol reputation spread of being the most brutal, many towns surrendered to Genghis without a fight.Without a doubt, the Mongols were a very powerful people and the fact that it would only take them a few days compared to other armies that took months to years to gather resources says a lot about the society. The Mongol army was enormous as well as disciplined; however, the Mongol soldiers were viewed often as marauders rather than conquerors. The Mongols were certainly a constant threat due to their persistent expansion but they were not viewed as an unstoppable force, some believed that by having a large standing army “all fear of danger from the Mongols will be adverted” (Ziya’ al-Din Barani, 293).
The Mongol invasions were by a very disciplined army, they had commanders leading them and they were punished harshly if they did anything wrong. The level of fear that the Mongols were able to draw out from even the most powerful of empires showed how having a strong military doesn’t always rest in numbers but also the tactics, organization, leadership and innovation of an army. While in other armies ‘months and years are required to equip an army and it takes a brimful treasury to meet the expense of salaries and allotments of land,’ the Mongols took advantage of the period when armies were ‘vague and uncertain,’ in order to conquer and defeat the opposing armies, (Juvaini, 287). When word spread of the Mongols and the growing amount of lands that they were conquering, then it was easier for leaders to prepare and defend their lands like Alauddin Khiliji did to protect his empire from Mongol invasion. ‘Alauddin had to worry about the caliber of his soldiers. Also like the Song, the sultanate faced real financial constraints to support the large army necessary to protect itself from the threat of Mongol invasion’ (Pollard and Rosenberg, 291). Mongol khans often adopted parts of the culture of the people they conquered. For example in the East, mongols embraced Chinese culture. In the West, mongols converted to islam. Chinese technologies like gunpowder and the magnetic compass reached Europe. “The idea that the mongols made our world modern certainly economic policies of the mongol empire and the states that came afterwards, ideas that lead to the flow of innovations from those eastern places to the western places. Idea of free trade and market economy comes out from the mongols and its important”(De Monto, “modern”).
The Mongol army can be similar to that of the Roman empire, in that there was a strict structure, discipline, and a lot of logistical planning. Both empires were the largest dynasties in the world. They controlled massive territories that spread across lands. Just like the Roman Empire, the Mongol Empire also had a period marked by ambitious battles meant to expand the sphere of influence of the nation (Atwood, 2004). The conquests were equally rewarding since they ended up in the rapid expansion of the Mongol empire throughout Eurasia. Mongol Empire was composed of ruthless rulers who went for the territories that they needed regardless of the damage that they caused. The attacks on the neighboring lands left a trail of orgy of destruction of systems, property and lives. Invasions of the empire led to the development of the largest displacements of people. Infection of the cities led to the weakening of their defenses. The Mongols would now set in, methodologically kill the healthy ones, and leave the rest To the black death (Atwood, 2004).
The Mongol migrations and invasions was similar to the Roman empire conquering most of the lands. romans had excellent methods to train new troops, and had admirable qualities in other areas in military, the Mongols generally display a superior, more effective Military strategy. Many military analysts state even today that Mongols were so extraordinary, they were agile, maneuverable, ruthless warriors. It is clear that the Mongols had the more efficient military strategy. “Those mongol invasions, they are extremely important for the spread of europeans, bring about faster trade and bring black death”(De monto, “rise of Europe”). The Mongol takeover of the routes of the Silk Road were positive initially for merchants in providing better security and travel accommodations. The Mongols themselves were disinterested in trade Except as a source of revenue through the taxes and various fees they charged. Even though the Mongols did introduce many more trade ports, but also unfortunately helped spread the plague. The plague heavily killed many people which resulted in the economy declining; jobs declined as there were lack of people to even hire, wages, and prices for resources increased. I believe the Mongol army was powerful as similar to the Roman military.