Post- Monica

Respond  on two different days who selected different factors than you, in the following ways:
Share insights on how your colleague’s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain.
Suggest alternative diagnoses and treatment options for acute, chronic, and referred pain.

                                                             Main Post
Pathophysiology of Acute, Chronic, and Referred Pain
     Acute pain is the body’s natural way of alerting one of something potentially harming the body.  Acute pain can last seconds or up to three months.  The chemical mediators that stimulate the pain must be removed for relief to occur. Physical manifestations might be hypertension, increased heart rate, dilated pupils, diaphoresis, and anxiety.  Acute pain can be broken down into three categories; somatic, visceral, and referred.  Somatic pain manifests from the skin, joints, and muscles; it can be dull or sharp and is the same as is seen in polymodal C fiber transmissions (Huether & McCance, 2017).
     Visceral pain transmits from the C fibers and affects internal organs and body cavity linings.  Visceral pain may be poorly localized and have the pain characteristics of gnawing, aching, intermittent cramping, and throbbing.  Nausea and vomiting, along with hypotension, may occur with visceral pain.  When visceral pain spreads or radiates away from the original site, it is classified as referred pain.  Referred pain can be chronic or acute.  Visceral and cutaneous neurons send impulses from the same ascending neuron; in this case, the brain cannot gauge the different sources of pain.  Because more receptors are located on the skin, the pain is felt at a referred site instead of the original location (Huether & McCance, 2017).
     Chronic pain is considered the pain that lasts 3-6 months or longer.  Changes in the central nervous and peripheral systems that cause dysregulation of pain modulation and nociception processes are thought to be the culprit for chronic pain.  Symptoms may manifest as those listed above for acute pain, in addition to psychologic and behavioral changes such as; difficulty sleeping and eating, depression, and avoidance of pain triggers (Huether & McCance, 2017).  
Patient Factors
     Gender and age differences can vary wildly regarding pain.  Men are less likely to report pain than women; they report more control over pain and are less likely than women to use alternative treatments for pain.  Women make up 46% of the American women that report pain daily; they are more likely to report back pain, headache, foot ache, and arthritis.  Women identify stress as a cause of pain (Lewis, Bucher, Heitkemper, & Harding, 2017).  
     The differences viewed regarding pain between younger and older adults might be; pain belief and attitude, pain perception, social support, and pain-related coping.  Age may increase the density of unmyelinated fibers within the peripheral nervous system; the functional integrity of neurons within the sensory system could be reduced.  There is brain volume loss noted in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex; the thalamus could be reduced controlling pain duration.  There are mixed findings related to decrease and increase sensitivity to pain in the older adult population; this is in part due to the perception of pain at this age, duration, stimuli, and individual characteristics.  Adaptive strategies seem to be popular among older adults for various reasons, they seem to have isolated “coping mechanisms” and do not want to be viewed as chronic complainers (Molton, Terrill, & Anderson, 2014).
References
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding  pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Lewis, S.L., Bucher, L., Heitkemper, M.M., & Harding, M.M.  (2017) Medical-surgical nuring assessment and management of clinical problems (10th ed.).  St. Louis, MO:  Elsevier
Molton, I. R., Terrill, A. L., & Anderson, N. (2014). Overview of persistent pain in older adults. The American Psychologist, (2), 197. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgea&AN=edsgcl.372499928&site=eds-live&scope=site

superadmin (28431)
New York University
DO YOU HAVE A SIMILAR ASSIGNMENT?

Hire an Expert to Help you

Hire Verified Expert

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Have a homework question? Get help from verified tutors now!

STAY HOME, SAVE LIVES Order your paper today and save 15% with the discount code MYHOMEWORKGEEKS30