Potential Impact Study of Renewable Energy Resources on Power Transformer

Chapter One Introduction to Topic CHAPTER I 1. 1Introduction: India is one of the developing countries & at the same times a fastest rising economy in the world. India along with the BRIC countries is considered as the back bone of the world’s economy. This attraction is partially due to the lower cost of manpower and good quality production. India is now the eleventh largest economy in the world, fourth in terms of purchasing power. It is poised to make tremendous economic strides over the coming years, with significant development already in the planning stages. For development of a country, infrastructure plays a vital role.

With the opening of the Indian economy in 1990, many multinational / transnational companies were eager to invest in India. India being the second largest population of the world is the largest market for foreign multinationals. For this reason development of the infrastructure was need of the hour for the economy. ENERGY development is the key aspect of infrastructure development & demand of the developing economy. Moreover, fulfilling the energy requirement of ever growing population is herculean task. The infrastructure deficit in India is immense & India is power stressed.

The increasing vibrancy and flexibility of the Indian economy is not matched by the power sector. India was heavily relied on Conventional energy resources like thermal energy. The conventional energy development mainly depends on availability of resources like oil, coal, coke etc. Even nuclear power generation depends on availability of uranium & platinum. Conventional energy generation also results in higher carbon emission & pollution. Destroying the wastes from the conventional energy generation is the major task ahead of the country. Renewable energy Resources give the best possible solution for this problem.

Renewable energy resources can be defined as the energy resources which can be replenished, as & when they are consumed e. g. solar, wind, small hydro power, biogas etc. Knowing the potential of this form of energy resources, Indian government established a separate ministry for Renewable energy resources in 2006. Perhaps, India is the only country having separate ministry for renewable energy. Since then renewable energy market is an upcoming market in Indian power sector. With boom in the renewable energy market, there is also a rise in demand for related manufacturing equipment industries.

Transformer is one of such equipments required in power systems for transmission of power. Our aim in this project is to make a Market Potential Impact Study for transformer for renewable energy markets. 1. 2Research Methodology: The first and a very important step in market research is formulating a research problem. It is the most important stage as if the problem is wrongly defined the subsequent stages will be of no good for the purpose for which the research is being conducted, at the same time the problem must not be defined too broadly or too narrowly.

In this Project we are identifying the gap in the organizations portfolio of Transformer Business in India. We have identified that organization has no presence in the low voltage, distribution class transformer markets in India. Looking at the growth rate of Renewable energy markets and governments initiative towards the renewable energy, our main objective is to ascertain its impact on transformer business. Identifying sources of information There are two type of data resources used for the research primary and secondary data sources. Primary research data :

Primary research involves getting original data directly about the product and market. Primary research data is data that did not exist before it is designed to answer specific questions of interest to the business. • One to one interaction: Idea generation of the project is drawn from the one to one interaction with the experienced colleagues and trusted associates. • Casual Interviews: Casual interviews are the unstructured interviews. Casual interactions with the seniors, discussions with the vendors are one of the sources of primary data. • Brainstorming:

Brainstorming is the casual interaction with experts. Experts are allowed to discuss freely on a particular subject. Their newly generated ideas are registered. There may not be any time duration for such sessions. • Observations: • Existing customer enquiries & their feedbacks: Many times customer enquiries can give us the data we required. The feedbacks from the existing customers are also helpful for idea generation. Secondary research data : Secondary data is the pre- existing data, already available through books, previous researches, organizations, government documents, journals, news papers etc. Trade magazines, Journals: There are various trade magazines in power sector available. IEEMA (Indian Electrical & Electronics Manufacturers Association), Powerline magazines, ITMA (Indian Transformer’s Manufacturing Association) are some of the related associations. These associations are also working on the Renewable Energy Resources. • Newspapers: News papers are always giving the updates about the new trends, ideas, research going on around the world around. • Internet articles, websites: Internet is the huge pool of data available for secondary research.

Various search engines like Google, Yahoo etc. are useful for finding the relevant data. Websites of various Private & government PSU’s are the sources of data. Websites of PGCIL, IEEMA, ITMA, Wind Power Associations, Wind mill solution manufacturer’s, statistical agencies are of immense help. • Books: Books are always the sources of the technical data. • Statistics agencies; The statistical agencies like India Securities ltd. , which are doing their own research in various industries, are the sources of secondary data. • Government resources:

Government organizations like PGCIL, SEB’s, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy Resources are the sources of data. • Manufacturing associations: Indian Transformer Manufacturing Association (ITMA), Windmill manufacturing associations are some of the manufacturing associations, which are used as the sources of secondary data. Gathering the existing data & checking its authenticity is an important step in the research design. After the process of data gathering information, the data was tabulated and analyzed through graphs & bar charts as discussed in chapter 4 of this report. . 3Objectives: • To study the current status of renewable energy market within India. Our study will mainly concentrate on Wind Energy & Small Hydro Projects (SHP). • To ascertain the market potential for renewable energy up to 2030 & study the strategic locations of renewable energy generation within India. Find out the trends in Power sector. • To study the specifications & the categories of the transformers required for renewable energy transmission. • Establish the relationship between the volumes of transformer business due to renewable energy market. To study the present organization set-up, this can be utilized for renewable energy transformers. 1. 4Limitations of the study: There are following limitations for the research: • The primary research was limited due to wide spread of consumers. 80% of the transformer business is from the Public utilities, state electricity boards. Most of the sites are in remote places. Hence data collection is time consuming. It is very difficult to get the responses from such wide spread customers in limited time.

For this research we mainly concentrated on customer feedbacks & experiences of previous telephonic conversations. • The secondary research is mainly concentrated on the data available through government resources. This is due to the fact that majority of the decision making & forecasting is done at the central government level. As there is increase in Private participation in recent years, there is limited amount of data available for it. 1. 5Conclusion: India is developing with the rapid pace; it implies heavy investments in infrastructure.

Energy generation is the key aspect for the infrastructure growth of the country. With the government’s initiative towards clean energy development, Renewable energy sector is booming. Due to Renewable energy development, there is also increase in the private participations in power plants implementations. This scenario is conducive for the demand of the transformers required for small power projects (private as well as public). In this project we will be concentrating on impact potential study of Renewable energy on power transformers.

This will be helpful for the organization for initiating the low power, low voltage, distribution transformer’s business in India. We will ascertain its feasibility in the subsequent chapters starting with the organization’s profile. Chapter Two Company Overview CHAPTER II SIEMENS Ltd. 2. 1HISTORY: Siemens was founded in Berlin by Werner von Siemens in 1847. As an extraordinary inventor, engineer and entrepreneur, Werner von Siemens made the world’s first pointer telegraph and electric dynamo, inventions that helped put the spin in the industrial revolution.

He was the man behind one of the most fascinating success stories of all time – by turning a humble little workshop into one of the world’s largest enterprises. As Werner had envisioned, the company he started grew from strength to strength in every field of electrical engineering. From constructing the world’s first electric railway to laying the first telegraph line linking Britain and India, Siemens was responsible for building much of the modern world’s infrastructure. Siemens is today a technology giant in more than 190 countries, employing some 440,000 people worldwide.

Our work in the fields of energy, industry, communications, information, transportation, healthcare, components and lighting has become essential parts of everyday life. While Werner was a tireless inventor during his days, Siemens today remains a relentless innovator. With innovations averaging 18 a day, it seems like the revolution Werner started is still going strong. 2. 2Corporate Overview: Siemens Ltd. in India The Siemens Group in India is a unique player in the field of electrical and electronics engineering.

We have the capability to integrate diverse products, systems and services into turnkey solutions across the life- cycle of a project. Innovation is our strength. But it’s not the only one. Our customers also know that they can rely on us to execute quality projects, while delivering value. In all areas of our operation, we provide the complete range of offerings. • In the Energy sector, our expertise ranges from power plants to turbines. • Industry sector, we build airports, as well as produce contactors. • In Transportation, we deliver complete high-speed trains, right down to safety relays. In Lighting, we illuminate large stadiums and also manufacture small light bulbs. • In Healthcare, we execute complete solutions for hospitals, as also provide “in- the canal” hearing aids. • And, the thread that connects all our businesses is Information technology. Siemens Ltd is the flagship listed company in India. Siemens in India, which comprises 20 legal entities, is a leading provider of industry and infrastructure solutions with a business volume aggregating about Rs 11,800 crore, as on September 2008. It operates in the core business areas of Industry, Energy and Healthcare.

It has nation-wide Sales and Service network, 20 manufacturing plants, a network of around 500 channel partners and employs about 17,200 people. 2. 3BUSINESSES: Organizational Chart Power Transmission & Distribution High Voltage Energy Automation Medium Voltage Transformers Services At Siemens, end-to-end products, systems and solutions for industrial and building automation as well as infrastructure installations are provided. These turnkey solutions cover project management, engineering and software, installation, commissioning, after-sales service, plant maintenance and training. . 4SECTORS • Energy Sector Siemens consolidates its innovative offerings in the Energy sector by combining its full range expertise in the areas of Power Generation (PG) and Power Transmission & Distribution (PTD). Utilizing the most advanced plant diagnostics and systems technologies, Siemens provides comprehensive services for complete power plants and for rotating machines such as gas and steam turbines, generators and compressors. Power Generation Efficient, reliable, climate-friendly power generation is vital for economic development.

With innovative technologies and products, Siemens is pushing the limits of power plant efficiency and helping strike a viable balance between climate protection, supply security and cost-efficiency in power generation. From simple cycle power plants to combined cycle power plants, steam power plants up to integrated gasification combined cycle plants, Siemens ensures the highest levels of efficiency currently possible throughout the entire power generation process. The wide range of offerings include solutions for the automation of power grids and products such as medium voltage switchgear and components. Compressors • Gas Turbines • Generators • Steam Turbines • Combine cycle power plants • Reference cycle power plants • Steam power plants • Fuel cells • Instrumentation & controls • Renewable power plants Power Transmission & Distribution (PTD) Efficient high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) power transmission lines are indispensable for transporting large amounts of electricity over long distances with minimum loss and thus for transmitting power from renewable energy sources in remote locations to distant consumer centres.

This is where the Power Transmission Division (PTD) of Siemens plays an important role as pioneering technology providers, offering greater reliability and efficiency besides contributing to develop sustainable power supplies. PTD offerings p the entire field of high voltage power transmission, including HVDC transmission systems and products and systems for high-voltage switchgear and transformers. • Power Transmission & Distribution Systems • Arrestors • Energy management • Power network communications • Power transmission system • Protection & substation controls Switchgears • TRANSFORMERS • Healthcare Sector By combining the most advanced laboratory diagnostics, imaging systems and healthcare information technology, Siemens Healthcare division enables clinicians to diagnose disease earlier and more accurately, making a decisive contribution to improving the quality of healthcare The Siemens Healthcare Division is one of the largest suppliers of healthcare technology in the world. It offers solutions for the entire supply chain under one roof – from prevention and early detection through diagnosis and on to treatment and aftercare.

In addition, Siemens Healthcare is the market leader for innovative hearing devices. Laboratory Diagnostics The Diagnostics Division of Siemens is engaged with the business of generating clinical diagnostic test results using tissue and fluid analysis – a process known as in-vitro diagnostics, besides immune diagnostics and molecular analysis. The Division’s solutions range from point-of-care applications to the automation of large laboratories, producing high quality outcomes that save time, money and lives. Diagnostic Imaging and Therapy • Laboratory Diagnostics • Hearing Instruments • Market Specific Solutions • IT Solutions and Services • Financial Solutions • Information & Communication We provide software solutions across the IT service chain, from consulting and system integration to IT infrastructure management in the areas of telecommunications, healthcare, manufacturing, public sector, utilities & government. • Communication Services • Fixed and mobile services • Information Technology • Telephone & communication Wireless modules • OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. (Lighting) OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. (Lighting)Artificial lighting accounts for a significant portion of today’s CO2 emissions. The use of energy-efficient lamps, LEDs and intelligent light management systems would not just help in bringing down the emission levels but also save significant amounts of energy and money. Siemens provides economical, long-life lighting for every application, including incandescent and fluorescent ones for domestic and industrial lighting.

Offerings include:General Lighting • Automotive Lighting • Electronics and Controls • Display/Optics • Opto Semiconductors • LED Systems • Luminaires • Mobility (Mob) A pioneer of the railway signaling systems in India, Siemens offers products and solutions in railway signaling and safety systems, traffic control and automation, electrification, traction equipment for locomotives and multiple unit system and mass transit vehicles. The product palette also includes rolling stock and auxiliary inverters for air-conditioned passenger coaches.

Fully equipped and backed by trained staff, turnkey projects are undertaken for urban transportation, mass rapid transport projects, traction substations overhead centenary and long distance transmission lines. Portfolio includes: • Railway automation • Rail electrification • Turnkey systems • Metros • Trains and locomotives • Light rail vehicles • Multiple units • Service, maintenance and support for • Building Technologies (BT) Siemens Building Technologies specializes in meeting the growing demand for increased personal safety and more secure public and private infrastructures by electronic security and building automation systems.

A market leader in providing solutions for ‘Intelligent Buildings’, the division offers a range of products and services for security, comfort and efficiency in high-end buildings, and covers the entire chain of offerings from engineering to services. Innovative solutions for Intelligent Buildings • Cross-Sector Business Siemens Information Systems Ltd. Siemens provides software solutions across the IT service chain, from consulting and system integration to IT infrastructure management in the areas of telecommunications, healthcare, manufacturing, public sector, utilities and government • Consumer Products Computers • Cordless Phones and Home Media • Electrical Installation Systems • Hearing Instruments • Home Appliances • Home Security • Home Automation & Asset Management 2. 5Transformer (Product Details) “Bringing the energy safely to the consumer” A basic requirement applicable to all power transformers. However, every single one is unique – designed according to individual factors such as voltage, power, climate, system topography, sound level and many more. Siemens is your partner, who picks up these requirements converting them into convincing solutions with maximum quality.

Power transformers that render their service reliably at site. Cost-efficient and safe throughout decades. Whether for infrastructure systems, industry or households – transformers play a key role for a reliable power supply. As a customer, one quite rightly place the highest demands on reliability, cost-effectiveness and operation time. In more than 100 countries and for more than 100 years, transformers from Siemens are synonymous with top quality – as a result of ideas, knowhow and unequalled experience. Many reasons for reliability

First of all, there is the fulfillment of the quality claim to which Siemens has committed themselves without compromises. Every factory manufacturing Siemens Transformers puts quality management system into practice. And only those transformers that have successfully passed all the comprehensive tests will then go into practical application. Siemens offers a complete service – from advice and design via manufacture, transport and commissioning up to our Transformer Life Management. The right transformer for your task

You need a product that exactly fits your task. Siemens provide the right transformer for every requirement – from compact distribution transformers through to large power transformers with ratings over 1000 MVA. Price Development World-market prices for raw materials and energy are continuously increasing, forcing the manufacturers of high-voltage products and transformers to significant price increases. Thanks to optimized processes and internal cost reduction measures, however, the price adjustment for Siemens products is extremely moderate.

Product Range Only a company that offers a complete product range can really cover all of your requirements. Siemens has put this fact into practice. For every required power, every voltage, every cooling method and every operating mode. • Generator step up transformers • System interconnecting transformers • Phase shifters • Shunt reactors • Transformers for HVDC • GEAFOL cast-resin transformers • Oil distribution transformers and voltage regulators • Special-purpose transformers • Line feeding transformers • Traction transformers pic] [pic] Cast-Resin Tansformers Ditribution transformer [pic] [pic] Power TransformersReactors [pic][pic] HVDC TransformerFurnace Transformers 2. 5SIEMENS Transformer Division in India Siemens has newly set-up a state-of-the-art, power transformers design-and-manufacturing facility in Kalwa, near Mumbai. The factory was started in 4th December 2007. The facility is capable of manufacturing high-voltage direct-current and other special application transformers.

The transformers manufactured by Siemens in India will be identical to those made in Europe, the United States and elsewhere as the technology for these comes from Nuremberg, Germany. The full technology transfer, including the know-how for design and production techniques, has been transferred through documentation as well as the training of Indian personnel in Siemens plants in Germany and elsewhere. The new plant is designed taking into consideration all the experiences gathered from other Siemens plants, which have been in operation for the past several decades.

This makes the plant unique as it applies all the best practices established in other plants – under one roof. The new plant will have 500 employees when it reaches full production capacity. The manpower and production costs account for approximately 15 percent of the sales price in India compared to about 35 percent in developed countries. The new Transformer factory will be able to address the heightened demand for power transmission equipment in the country by designing and manufacturing large transformers of power rating upto 600 MVA and 800 KV voltage class.

The factory will also produce special application transformers such as for HVDC and traction furnace applications. This factory is the latest addition to the prestigious league of 17 Transformer factories of Siemens located world-over. One of the unique features of the factory is that the transformers are manufactured in a dust-free and humidity controlled environment to ensure top class dry windings coming out of a vapour phase oven and tested under tough conditions in fully shielded test-lab. 2. 6SIEMENS IN FUTURE:

Identifying technologies with major growth potential, recognizing technologicalbreakthroughs, anticipating future customer needs and new business opportunities -Siemens experts are doing all of these things in a systematic process designed to make the company a trendsetter in as many business fields as possible. In an increasingly complex business environment marked by ever-shorter product cycles, the major challenge facing companies is how to organize R&D activities in as focused and success-oriented a manner as possible – while simultaneously making optimum use of available funds. Rigorous focus on growth markets of the future

Siemens’ Ten-Point Program was launched at the end of the 1990s to intensify the company’s focus on active portfolio management. To this day, Siemens continues to pursue the strategy defined in the program and achieve its growth targets through organic growth powered by the company’s innovative strengths, as well as through acquisitions, divestments and the formation of startups and joint ventures. In 2005, Siemens launched the Fit4More program to further tailor the strategic development of the company’s portfolio to the growth markets of the future, thus laying the groundwork for sustainable profitable growth.

In addition to defining four pillars – Performance and Portfolio, Operational Excellence, People Excellence and Corporate Responsibility – the program identified urbanization and demographic change as key megatrends that would drive its business in the future. The company’s business portfolio has changed considerably in the past few years. For example, Siemens withdrew completely from the components business (now Infineon and Epcos). Large parts of its telecommunications technology business were funneled into the joint venture Nokia Siemens Networks in 2006.

At the same time, Siemens strengthened its activities in the energy, industry and healthcare fields though extensive acquisitions. In 2006 alone, the company invested more than €6 billion to acquire companies and holdings. The current Fit4 2010 program embodies a rigorous continuation of this strategy, including further portfolio optimization with a focus on the fields of energy and environment, industry and healthcare. Siemens expects to win new orders of around INR 1 trillion in the next three fiscal years 2010 until 2012, which will be generated by government stimulus programs already announced around the world.

Green technologies are expected to account for 40 percent or approximately INR 400 billion of this total, which will significantly increase the share of the company’s revenues from its environmental portfolio in the future. Siemens based this forecast on an initial systematic analysis of the largest stimulus programs. Siemens has continued with its investment plans and focused on strengthening the local manufacturing base. In the last two years, Siemens has added three new factories in Indian energy sector alone. SIEMENS constant focus is to bring world-class and high technology products to India. Chapter Three

Theoretical Framework CHAPTER III 3. 1Energy Scenario in India Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. India ranks sixth in the world in total energy consumption and needs to accelerate the development of the sector to meet its growth aspirations. The country, though rich in coal and abundantly endowed with renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, hydro and bio-energy has very small hydrocarbon reserves (0. % of the world’s reserve). India, like many other developing countries, is a net importer of energy, more than 25 percent of primary energy needs being met through imports mainly in the form of crude oil and natural gas. The rising oil import bill has been the focus of serious concerns due to the pressure it has placed on scarce foreign exchange resources and is also largely responsible for energy supply shortages. [pic] India has had a negative Energy Balance for decades, which has forced the purchase of energy from outside the country. Based on available energy resources, energy sector can be classified as follows:

Few Definitions: 1. Thermal power generation: At a thermal power station in which the electric generators are steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated. The steam can be generated using • Fossil fuels like Coal / ignite • Gas • Diesel or Liquid fuel 2. Hydro-Eectric Power Generation: It is nothing but using the power of water currents to generate electric power.

Generally, hydroelectric power is created by directing water flow through a turbine, where the water causes fans to turn, creating the torque needed to drive an electric generator. [pic] 3. Nuclear Power: The energy released from an atom in nuclear reactions or by radioactive decay: esp. the energy released in nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. The radioactive materials like Thorium, uranium are used for energy generation. 4. Wind power It is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as electricity, using wind turbines. Wind power produced about 1. % of worldwide electricity usage;[1][2] and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. 5. Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat) It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. This geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. It has been used for space heating and bathing since ancient roman times, but is now better known for generating electricity.

About 10 GW of geothermal electric capacity is installed around the world as of 2007, generating 0. 3% of global electricity demand. 6. Solar power It is the result of converting sunlight into electricity. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly with concentrating solar power (CSP), which normally focuses the sun’s energy to boil water which is then used to provide power. The largest solar power plants, like the 354 MW SEGS, are concentrating solar thermal plants, but recently multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have been built. 7.

Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work like electricity generation 8. Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power Following chart shows the Indian energy scenario in 2005 & as on August 2008. It also shows the potential of various energy sectors by 2030. [pic]

Installed Capacity, by fuel (as on August 31 2008) |Fuel |Installed Capacity (kW) |Share (%) | |Thermal |92691. 83 |63. 42 | | Coal & ignite |76646. 50 |52. 45 | | Gas |13560. 52 |9. 8 | | Diesel & liquid fuels |2484. 81 |1. 70 | |Hydro |36399. 80 |24. 91 | |Renewable |12932. 74 |8. 85 | | Wind |9041. 00 |6. 9 | | Small Hydro |2211. 00 |1. 51 | | Biomss |649. 00 |0. 44 | | Bagasse |973. 00 |0. 67 | | Waste-to-energy |56. 00 |0. 4 | | Solar |2. 74 |0. 00 | |Nuclear |4120. 00 |2. 82 | |Total |146144. 37 |100. 00 | (Source:CEA, Ministry of New & renewable energy. ) Power line magazine- Sept. 008 Since thermal generation is based on burning coal or oil, increases in CO2 emissions, which damage the environment and affect global warming, accompany this growth. As the graph below shows, it also increases the dependence on imports, which will continue into the future unless the policy changes. [pic] [pic] Estimates of Potential Capacities from Renewable Energy Sources (in MWs) (Source: India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources) [pic] Under this project we will be concentrating on the potential of Renewable Energy Resources-Wind Energy & Small Hydro projects in India. 3. WIND ENERGY: [pic] 3. 2. 1Wind resource potential: The wind power generation in the country is influenced to a great extent by the wind speed and wind power density prevalent at a particular potential location at any given point of time. The wind speed is affected to a large extent by the strong southwesterly monsoons, starting in May-June, and by the weaker northeastern monsoons in the winter months. It has been generally observed that 60-70% of the total wind power generation in the country takes place during June- October when the southwest monsoons are prevalent throughout the country.

According to a latest study, locations having an annual mean wind power density greater than 150 watts/ square meter at 30 meter hub height have been found to be suitable for development of wind power projects. 3. 2. 2Advantages of Wind Power: • It is one of the most environment friendly, clean and safe energy resources. • It has the lowest gestation period as compared to conventional energy. • Equipment erection and commissioning involve only a few months. • There is no fuel consumption, hence low operating costs. Maintenance costs are low. • The capital cost is comparable with conventional power plants. For a wind farm, the capital cost ranges between 4. 5 crores to 5. 5 crores, depending on the site and the wind electric generator (WEG) selected for installation. | |Wind |Fossil Fuel | |Availability |Usable as it exists |Have to be procured and made usable through | | |laborious and environmentally damaging | | | |processes | |Limitation on |Inexhaustible resource |Limited in reserves, expected to be completely| |availability | |exhausted in the coming 60 years | |Transportation |Used where it is available or |Has to be transported from its source site for| | |transported where needed |further processing, exposing the environment | | | |to pollution from accidents | |Environmental |Zero emission |Used in producing electricity, releasing green| |effect of use | |house gasses | |Geo-political |Reduces our reliance on oil, |Over-reliance on oil as a resource has | |implications |safeguarding national security. undermined India’s energy security, e. g. OPEC | | |Allows for self sufficiency. |crises of 1973, Gulf War of 1991 and the Iraq | | |There is no adverse effect on |War of 2003. | | |global environment. The whole | | | |system is pollution free and | | | |environment friendly. | |

The pollution saving from a Wind Energy Generation with an average output of 4,000 kWh per year, savings have been estimated as follows: • Sulphur – dioxide (SO2): 2 to 3. 2 tonnes • Nitrogen – oxide (NO) ; 1. 2 to 2. 4 tonnes • Carbon – dioxide (CO2) : 300 to 500 tonnes • Particulates: 150 to 280 kg. 3. 2. 3The essential requirements for a Wind farm: An area where a number of wind electric generators are installed is known as a wind farm. The essential requirements for establishment of a wind farm for optimal exploitation of the wind are the following: • High wind resource at particular site. • Adequate land availability • Suitable terrain and good soil condition • Maintenance access to site • Suitable power grid nearby • Techno-economic selection of specific turbines • Scientifically prepared layout Resource |Potential (MW) |Installed capacity as on 31st March 2007 (MW) | |Wind |45000 |7092 | |Small hydro |15000 |1975 | |Biomass power / cogeneration |19500 |1184 | |Solar |4-6 kWh/m2/day |2. 74 | | |(20MW/sq. m) | | |Waste-to-Energy |2700 |43 | The sum of these renewable resource potentials, 152,000 MW, is greater than the current total installed energy generating capacity of India. 3. 2. 4Estimated Wind Power Potential in India The wind power potential on a national level, base data collected from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability, is around 46,092 MW. StateGross potential (MW) Andhra Pradesh 9063 Gujarat 7362 Karnataka 7161 Kerala 1026 Madhya Pradesh 4978

Maharashtra 4519 Orissa 1520 Rajasthan 6672 Tamil Nadu 4159 West Bengal 32 TOTAL 46,092 3. 2. 5Manufacturers of Wind Energy Generators (WEGs) |Name |Foreign Collaborator | |Arul Mariamman Textiles Limited |Win World Denmark | |Asian Wind Turbine Pvt. Ltd. |NEG- MICON Denmark | |Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. |Nordex, Denmark | |Das lageway Wind Turbines Ltd. Lagerwey, Netherlands | |Elecon Engineering Company Ltd. |Turbowinds n. v. , Belgium | |Enercon India Ltd. |Enercon GmbH, Germany | |Kirloskar Electric Company Ltd. |Wind Energy Group, UK | |NEPC India Ltd. | | | Poineer Wincon India Ltd. |Wincon, Denmark | |REPL Engineering Ltd. |Bonus Denmark | |Suzlon Energy Ltd. Sudwind Energie Systeme, Germany | |Tackle Wind Energy India (Pvt) Ltd. |Tacke Windenergie GmbH, Germany | |TTG Induatries Ltd. |Husumer, Schiffswerft, Germany | |Vestas RRB |Vestas, Denmark | |Windia Power Ltd. |Nedwind, Netherlands | 3. 2. 6Economics of wind power development • The capital investment generally incurred towards installation of a 1 MW capacity wind farm is to the tune of Rs. 4. 0 crore. • Nearly 85-87% of the capital investment cost is incurred towards the supply, packaging, handling, loading, transportation, unloading, insurance cover, erection and commissioning of the WEGs. • Another 2-3% of the capital cost is incurred towards construction of the foundation of the tower and other associated civil construction units like the metering and control room, foundation for housing the step up transformer etc. • Nearly 1-2% of the capital cost is incurred towards purchase of land and site development. • The cost of land should be valued to the rates prescribed by the District Level Committee (DLC) of the concerned state. The remaining 8-12% of the capital cost is incurred towards purchase of electrical equipment like the step up transformer, controls, OHT line connection to the nearest available grid and other electrical accessories. • The operation and maintenance cost per annum (inclusive of the insurance coverage) amounts to approximately Rs. 7. 00 lakh. • The expected generation of power from the WEGs on an annual basis come to the tune of 2. 5 million KWh after accounting for non operational hours of the machines due to annual repair and maintenance, non availability of cut in wind velocity or wind velocity being higher than the cut off wind velocity at a particular site. • The cost of generation of power is in the vicinity of Rs. 3. 5 / KWh. The power buy back rate varies from state to state. If wheeling is permitted then the power buy back rate can be fairly assumed as the commercial rate prevalent in a state. Wind energy generated is connected to the grid as follows: [pic] At the various stages of transmission, transformers are used for stepping-up or stepping down the voltages. [pic] | | |3. 3 Small Hydro Power: | |3. 3. Introduction | |Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environmentally benign source of energy. It is perhaps the oldest renewable energy technique | |known to the mankind for mechanical energy conversion as well as electricity generation. | |Hydropower represents use of water resources towards inflation free energy due to absence of fuel cost with mature technology characterized | |by highest prime moving efficiency and spectacular operational flexibility. Out of the total power generation installed capacity of 1,48,265 | |MW (April,2009) in the country, hydro power contributes about 25% i. e. 36,877 MW. |3. 3. 2 Hydro Power Project Classification                                | |Hydro power projects are generally categorized in two segments i. e. small and large hydro. In India, hydro projects up to 25 MW station | |capacity have been categorized as Small Hydro Power (SHP) projects. While Ministry of Power, Government of India is responsible for large | |hydro projects, the mandate for the subject small hydro power (up to 25 MW) is given to Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Small hydro | |power projects are further classified as | |Class |Station Capacity in kW | | | |Micro Hydro | |Up to 100 | | | |Mini Hydro | |101 to 2000 | | | |Small Hydro | |2001 to 25000 | | | | 3. 3. 3 Small Hydro Power Programme | |Small Hydro Power ( SHP) Programme is one of the thrust areas of power generation from renewable in the Ministry of New and Renewable | |Energy.

It has been recognized that small hydropower projects can play a critical role in improving the over all energy scenario of the | |country and in particular for remote and inaccessible areas. The Ministry is encouraging development of small hydro projects both in the | |public as well as private sector. Equal attention is being paid to grid-interactive and decentralized projects. | |Aim:    The Ministry’s aim is that the SHP installed capacity should be about 7000 MW by the end of 12th Plan. The focus of the SHP programme| |is to lower the cost of equipment, increase its reliability and set up projects in areas which give the maximum advantage in terms of | |capacity utilisation. | |Potential: An estimated potential of about 15,000 MW of small hydro power projects exists in India.

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has | |created a database of potential sites of small hydro and 5,415 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of 14,305. 47 MW for projects up to | |25 MW capacity have been identified. | | STATE WISE IDENTIFIED SMALL HYDEL SITES AND POTENTIAL | | | |UP TO 25 MW CAPACITY  (as on 31. 3. 2009) | | | | | |S.

No | |Name of State | |IDENTIFIED NUMBER | |OF SITES  | |Total Capacity | |(in MW) | | | |1 | |Andhra Pradesh | |489 | |552. 29 | | | |2 | |Arunachal Pradesh | |566 | |1333. 4 | | | |3 | |Assam | |   60 | |213. 84 | | | |4 | |Bihar | |   94 | |213. 75 | | |5 | |Chhatisgarh | |164 | |706. 62 | | | |6 | |Goa | |     9 | |    9. 0 | | | |7 | |Gujarat | |292 | |196. 97 | | | |8 | |Haryana | |   33 | |110. 5 | | | |9 | |Himachal Pradesh | |547 | |2268. 41 | | | |10 | |Jammu & Kashmir | |246 | |1411. 2 | | | |11 | |Jharkhand | |103 | |  208. 95 | | | |12 | |Karnataka | |128 | |  643. 6 | | | |13 | |Kerala | |247 | |  708. 10 | | | |14 | |Madhya Pradesh | |  99 | |  400. 8 | | | |15 | |Maharashtra | |253 | |  762. 58 | | | |16 | |Manipur | |113 | |  109. 0 | | | |17 | |Meghalaya | |102 | |  229. 81 | | | |18 | |Mizoram | |   75 | | 166. 4 | | | |19 | |Nagaland | |   99 | | 196. 98 | | | |20 | |Orissa | |222 | |295. 7 | | | |21 | |Punjab | |234 | |390. 02 | | | |22 | |Rajasthan | |   67 | |   63. 7 | | | |23 | |Sikkim | |   91 | |265. 54 | | | |24 | |Tamil Nadu | |176 | |499. 1 | | | |25 | |Tripura | |   13 | |   46. 86 | | | |26 | |Uttar Pradesh | |220 | |292. 6 | | | |27 | |Uttaranchal | |458 | |          1609. 25 | | | |28 | |West Bengal | |203 | |  393. 9 | | | |29 | |A Island | |   12 | |       7. 91 | | | |  | |TOTAL | |               5,415 | |       14,305. 7 | | | | Identification of new potential sites and strengthening of database for already identified sites is an ongoing process. In this direction, | |the Ministry has been giving financial support to state governments/ agencies for identification of new potential SHP sites & preparation of | |state perspective plan. | |3. 3. 4 Small hydro installed capacity and progress | |            The total installed capacity of small hydro power projects (upto 25 MW) as on 31. 03. 009 is 2429. 77 MW from 674 projects and 188 | |projects with aggregate capacity of 483. 23 MW are under construction. | |            While in early 90s, most of the SHP projects were set up in the public sector, from last 10 years or so, most of the capacity | |addition is now coming through private sector projects. Beginning of the 21st century saw near commercialization in the small hydro sector. | |Private sector entrepreneurs found attractive business opportunities in small hydro and state governments also felt that the private | |participation may be necessary in tapping the full potential of rivers and canals for power generation.

The private sector has been attracted| |by these projects due to their small adoptable capacity matching with their captive requirements or even as affordable investment | |opportunities. In line with Government of India policy, 18 states have announced their policy for inviting private sector to set up SHP | |projects. The Government of India announced the Electricity Act in 2003, Electricity Policy in 2005 and Tariff Policy in 2006 to create a | |conducive atmosphere for investments in the power sector. Small hydropower projects are now governed by these policies and the tariff is | |decided by the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) as per the Tariff Policy. | |During the 10th Plan, Following have been year-wise capacity addition from SHP projects. |Year | |Target | |(in MW) | |Capacity addition during the year | |(in MW) | |Cumulative SHP installed capacity | |(in MW) | | | |2002-03 | |80 | |80. 39 | |1519. 28 | | | |2003-04 | |80 | |84. 04 | |1603. 2 | | | |2004-05 | |100 | |102. 31 | |1705. 63 | | | |2005-06 | |130 | |120. 80 | |1826. 3

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyhomeworkGeeks
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business and administrative studies
excellent work
Customer 452773, March 9th, 2023
excellent job made a 93
Customer 452773, March 22nd, 2023
Thank you for your hard work and help.
Customer 452773, February 13th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
always perfect work and always completed early
Customer 452773, February 21st, 2023
excellent work
Customer 452773, March 1st, 2024
Criminal Justice
This has been the greatest help while I am recovering from an illness. Thank your team so much.
Customer 452671, May 2nd, 2021
Impressive writing
Customer 452547, February 6th, 2021
Leadership Studies
awesome work as always
Customer 452773, August 19th, 2023
Leadership Studies
excellent job
Customer 452773, August 26th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
Excellent job
Customer 452773, March 17th, 2023
English 101
IThank you
Customer 452631, April 6th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
excellent, great job
Customer 452773, June 19th, 2023
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own

Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;

  • Dissertations and Thesis
  • Essays
  • All Assignments

  • Research papers
  • Terms Papers
  • Online Classes
Live ChatWhatsApp