Surgeon General Koop back in 1986 was an American pediatric surgeon and a public health administrator. Koop was known for his work in the prevention of tobacco use, aids and many more issues that technically deal with the criminal justice system. Koop was able to see the underlying cause of the issues and not just see the surface level and limit it to one arena. By one mans influence violence was now conceptualized as a public safety and health issue. Not long after Koop people began to follow, in 1991 the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control was with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Medical Association had begun practices designed to address family violence. The inclusion of theses intuitions was so great because now there are no longer any constricting boundaries from helping people in different communities. The idea that the criminal justice can solve crime and be the savior of all without the help of other organizations no longer existed.
Criminal Justice issues resonate far beyond the common arena of police, and the courtroom workgroup. The need for collaboration is pertinent for the communities that are forgotten, because of crime and neglect. Disorganized communities with a large minority population experience the effects of socioeconomic inequalities greatly and these risks are nested within something far greater than what we can imagine. There have been a few studies that have showed the effects of minority children who are raised in these disorganized communities. In the article Predictors of Resilience in Maltreated and Non maltreated Latino Children, many environmental risk factors have been identified that predict maladaptive functioning in children independent of race ethnicity, including limited maternal education, unskilled occupational status of the head of the household, low SES, dependency on the state for financial support, parental unemployment, low number of parents living in the home, large family size, parental mental illness, and parental relationship instability Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, & Aber, 1997; Cicchetti & Toth, 1998. This is a very dangerous thing because, children are not being taught and or being exposed to positive influencers, so not only does this become a cycle, collective efficacy will never happen because no one in this community cares enough about it. Crime and public health in a disorganized community unfortunately work together. The differences in crime and public health are how each body looks at issues, what issues need more attention than the others and available resources.