Leadership and management are related in a way, but they are both different. While the manager, in French terms is a leader, an innovator, the inspirational type and an activist (Dex), a leader is the “broker” or “stabilizer” of the manager (Rex). For a manager to be effective, he must have leadership qualities and skills (‘Roles and Responsibilities of a Manager in an Organization’). One distinction between the two is that although they have powers, a manager has authority placed on the position whereas a leader may get the authority from the supporters or those who follow.
A leader functions to represent the people and form an intermediary between the links of the organization performs required counselling to improve employee performance and should utilize the power delegated to him for the proper and effective functioning of an organization. A leader must be geared towards winning the following by the subordinates. This is in order to ensure proper participation of all in meeting the goals of the organization.
There are two different styles of management that will be outlined here. In an authoritarian style of management, the managers can be seen to be performing their roles as directed by their subjects, whereas, in a participatory style, managers have work or responsibility given to them. Decision making in a participatory style involves consultations and participation of all levels in decision making, unlike in the authoritative style where it is made at the topmost level. People’s potential of intellect is underutilized since they are viewed as to hate work and forced to do it, then in the participatory model where people learn even to seek more responsibility (Davidmann).
The major roles and functions of a manager can be summarized as the motivation of employees, controlling, leading and strategic planning (‘Roles and Functions of a Manager’, 1.) Mintzberg analyzed managerial roles linking them to associated “concrete organization or post” (36) and are part of the players in the stage. Managerial proper, informational and interpersonal represent the classification of the managerial roles. The managers are expected to make decisions, handle information and exchange the same with people. Ohio state classification (495) brings the idea that it would be possible to classify managers since those at high ranks may be more involved in decision making than would be involved in interpersonal and informational roles. According to Minztberg (1994), there is no need for strategic planning as a term in management since it has encouraged strategic thinking. Managers’, in his view, maybe deceived as planning strategically by following the analytical and bureaucratic process of planning. Although he is critical of planning, Power (2007) views that formal planning can help organizations and should involve both thinking and analysis. Managers of airbus should therefore not concentrate on the mere declaration of plans without careful analysis, say, of the effects and how to achieve the plans.
Fall noted that management was a process and entailed coordination, controlling, organizing and “give orders” (71). Certain roles, for example, those needed for the effective running of the Airbus firms, or any other firm in general, can be seen as necessary to accomplishing certain functions of the firm managers, for example, planning entails the use of negotiation, dissemination, and liaison roles while organizing would entail the handling of disturbances, allocating resources, motivation like that given to employees, and controlling is concerned with monitoring handling disturbances and other basic roles. Managers in such an Airbus industry, for example, will have contacts with people such as their superior, clients and juniors as they accomplish their roles while the functions may consist of no contacts between the managers and other people, for example making of decisions, planning, analysis and working with documents, for example, the travel documents. Thus, communication of managers with people is essential in carrying out the roles while arguably; managerial functions may be carried out without communication with people (‘Classification of Managerial Roles’). After the planning of how to accomplish the goals, managers should organize the available and other resources necessary to achieve the goals. Control actions entail the corrective measures needed to achieve certain targets when goals are not matched by the results. Directing is the making of the employees to meet the set objectives and targets by overseeing, leading, and guiding the workers (‘Managerial Functions’). According to F. Tylor, division of work between employees and managers would be necessary-as one of the principles of the idea of scientific management-so as to place managers as to planning the work while the employees would be required to carry out tasks. The managers were expected to carry out the “enforcing” role to the standardization of the methods (Taylor; and in Montgomery, 229).
During the performance of the roles like interviewing, meeting and debating; a manager must ensure proper and effective means of communication between the groups they represent. Control operations on duties that have already been performed require a good communication and feedback channel to convey the results that will be measured against performance. The functional model of management focuses on the organizations needs to achieve its goals and how efficient it serve its clients (Ryszard), whereas the role-based model focuses on the accomplishment of the managerial duties as directed or assumed. Managers are focused on the functions of the organizations and look forward to achieving them.
In conclusion, managerial roles and functions are connected. Managerial roles can be seen as important tools to achieving the specific functions of the managers. Communication is important when achieving the roles of management while certain functions may be accomplished without the need for interaction between managers and the rest of the stakeholders.
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Mintzberg, H., The fall and rise of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review.1994, Pp.107-114.
Montgomery S. Charles D. Wrege and Amadeo G. Perroni, “Taylor’s Pig Tale: A Historical Analysis of Frederick W. Taylor’s Pig-Iron experiments” in: Academy of Management Journal, 17 (1974). pp.6-27.
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Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, cited by Montgomery 1989: pp.229.
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