RU Dependency Diagram Partial and Transitive Dependencies Questions

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1. Using the descriptions of the attributes given in the figure, convert the ERD shown in Figure P6.1 into a dependency diagram that is in at least 3NF.

2. Using the descriptions of the attributes given in the figure, convert the ERD shown in Figure P6.2 into a dependency diagram that is in at least 3NF.



3.Using the INVOICE table structure shown in Table P6.3, do the following:

a. Write the relational schema, draw its dependency diagram, and identify all dependencies, including all partial and transitive dependencies. You can assume that the table does not contain repeating groups and that an invoice number references more than one product. (Hint: This table uses a composite primary key.)

b. Remove all partial dependencies, write the relational schema, and draw the new dependency diagrams. Identify the normal forms for each table structure you created.

Note: You can assume that any given product is supplied by a single vendor, but a vendor can supply many products. Therefore, it is proper to conclude that the following dependency exists:

PROD_NUM S PROD_lABEl, PROD_PRICE, vEND_CODE, vEND_NAME

(Hint: Your actions should produce three dependency diagrams.)

c. Remove all transitive dependencies, write the relational schema, and draw the new dependency diagrams. Also identify the normal forms for each table structure you created.

d. Draw the Crow’s Foot ERD.


4. Using the STUDENT table structure shown in Table P6.4, do the following:

a. Write the relational schema and draw its dependency diagram. Identify all dependencies, including all transitive dependencies.

b. Write the relational schema and draw the dependency diagram to meet the 3NF requirements to the greatest practical extent possible. If you believe that practical considerations dictate using a 2NF structure, explain why your decision to retain 2NF is appropriate. If necessary, add or modify attributes to create appropriate determinants and to adhere to the naming conventions.

c. Using the results of Problem 4, draw the Crow’s Foot ERD.

Note: Although the completed student hours (STU_HOURS) do determine the student classification (STU_ClASS), this dependency is not as obvious as you might initially assume it to be. For example, a student is considered a junior if the student has completed between 61 and 90 credit hours.


5.To keep track of office furniture, computers, printers, and other office equipment, the FOUNDIT Company uses the table structure shown in Table P6.5.

a. Given that information, write the relational schema and draw the dependency diagram. Make sure that you label the transitive and/or partial dependencies.

b. Write the relational schema and create a set of dependency diagrams that meet 3NF requirements. Rename attributes to meet the naming conventions, and create new entities and attributes as necessary.

c. Draw the Crow’s Foot ERD.


6.The table structure shown in Table P6.6 contains many unsatisfactory components and characteristics. For example, there are several multivalued attributes, naming conventions are violated, and some attributes are not atomic.

a. Given the structure shown in Table P6.6, write the relational schema and draw its dependency diagram. Label all transitive and/or partial dependencies.

b. Draw the dependency diagrams that are in 3NF. (Hint: You might have to create a few new attributes. Also make sure that the new dependency diagrams contain attributes that meet proper design criteria; that is, make sure there are no multivalued attributes, that the naming conventions are met, and so on.)

c. Draw the relational diagram.

d. Draw the Crow’s Foot ERD.


7.Suppose you are given the following business rules to form the basis for a database design. The database must enable the manager of a company dinner club to mail invitations to the club’s members, to plan the meals, to keep track of who attends the dinners, and so on.

  • Each dinner serves many members, and each member may attend many dinners.
  • A member receives many invitations, and each invitation is mailed to many members.
  • A dinner is based on a single entree, but an entree may be used as the basis for many dinners. For example, a dinner may be composed of a fish entree, rice, and corn, or the dinner may be composed of a fish entree, a baked potato, and string beans.

Because the manager is not a database expert, the first attempt at creating the database uses the structure shown in Table P6.7.

a. Given the table structure illustrated in Table P6.7, write the relational schema and draw its dependency diagram. Label all transitive and/or partial dependencies. (Hint: This structure uses a composite primary key.)

b. Break up the dependency diagram you drew in Problem 7a to produce dependency diagrams that are in 3NF, and write the relational schema. (Hint: You might have to create a few new attributes. Also, make sure that the new dependency diagrams contain attributes that meet proper design criteria; that is, make sure there are no multivalued attributes, that the naming conventions are met, and so on.)

c. Using the results of Problem 7b, draw the Crow’s Foot ERD.

8.Use the dependency diagram shown in Figure P6.8 to work the following problems.

a. Break up the dependency diagram shown in Figure P6.8 to create two new dependency diagrams: one in 3NF and one in 2NF.

b. Modify the dependency diagrams you created in Problem 8a to produce a set of dependency diagrams that are in 3NF. (Hint: One of your dependency diagrams should be in 3NF but not in BCNF.)

c. Modify the dependency diagrams you created in Problem 8b to produce a collection of dependency diagrams that are in 3NF and BCNF.

9.Suppose you have been given the table structure and data shown in Table P6.9, which was imported from an Excel spreadsheet. The data reflects that a professor can have multiple advisees, can serve on multiple committees, and can edit more than one journal.

Given the information in Table P6.9:

a. Draw the dependency diagram.

b. Identify the multivalued dependencies.

c. Create the dependency diagrams to yield a set of table structures in 3NF.

d. Eliminate the multivalued dependencies by converting the affected table structures to 4NF.

e. Draw the Crow’s Foot ERD to reflect the dependency diagrams you drew in Problem 9c. (Note: You might have to create additional attributes to define the proper PKs and FKs. Make sure that all of your attributes conform to the naming conventions.)


10. The manager of a consulting firm has asked you to evaluate a database that contains the table structure shown in Table P6.10.

Table P6.10 was created to enable the manager to match clients with consultants. The objective is to match a client within a given region with a consultant in that region and to make sure that the client’s need for specific consulting services is properly matched to the consultant’s expertise. For example, if the client needs help with database design and is located in the Southeast, the objective is to make a match with a consultant who is located in the Southeast and whose expertise is in database design. (Although the consulting company manager tries to match consultant and client locations to minimize travel expense, it is not always possible to do so.) The following basic business rules are maintained:

  • Each client is located in one region.
  • A region can contain many clients.
  • Each consultant can work on many contracts.

  • Each contract might require the services of many consultants.
  • A client can sign more than one contract, but each contract is signed by only one client.
  • Each contract might cover multiple consulting classifications. For example, a contract may list consulting services in database design and networking.
  • Each consultant is located in one region.
  • A region can contain many consultants.
  • Each consultant has one or more areas of expertise (class). For example, a consultant might be classified as an expert in both database design and networking.
  • Each area of expertise (class) can have many consultants. For example, the consulting company might employ many consultants who are networking experts.

a. Given this brief description of the requirements and the business rules, write the relational schema and draw the dependency diagram for the preceding (and very poor) table structure. Label all transitive and/or partial dependencies.

b. Break up the dependency diagram you drew in Problem 10a to produce dependency diagrams that are in 3NF and write the relational schema. (Hint: You might have to create a few new attributes. Also make sure that the new dependency diagrams contain attributes that meet proper design criteria; that is, make sure there are no multivalued attributes, that the naming conventions are met, and so on.)

c. Using the results of Problem 10b, draw the Crow’s Foot ERD.

11.Given the sample records in the CHARTER table shown in Table P6.11, do the following:

a. Write the relational schema and draw the dependency diagram for the table structure. Make sure that you label all dependencies. CHAR_PAX indicates the number of passengers carried. The CHAR_MILES entry is based on round-trip miles, including pickup points. (Hint: Look at the data values to determine the nature of the relationships. For example, note that employee Melton has flown two charter trips as pilot and one trip as copilot.)

b. Decompose the dependency diagram you drew to solve Problem 11a to create table structures that are in 3NF and write the relational schema.

c. Draw the Crow’s Foot ERD to reflect the properly decomposed dependency diagrams you created in Problem 11b. Make sure the ERD yields a database that can track all of the data shown in Problem 11. Show all entities, relationships, connectivities, optionalities, and cardinalities.

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