Theory and Practice of Total Quality Management

Discussion of the various principles of Total Quality Management

Learning orientation

Learning orientation refers to the configuration of three main issues that include shared vision, open-mindedness, and commitment to learning. Accordingly, a learning-oriented organization always pushes its employees to utilize both single-loop and double-loop learning, as well as scrutinize their conventional practices and routines with an open mind and determination. Therefore, learning orientation is undoubtedly an organizational feature that promotes endless learning and improvement (Lama, Leea, Ooia & Linb, 2011).

Customer focus

Organizations need to pay special attention to the customer’s needs because the level of quality ultimately lies with the customer. Irrespective of the efforts that an organization makes to promote quality improvement such as investing in new measuring tools, improving computers, training workers, and incorporating quality into the design process, the customer ultimately determines whether an organization’s efforts are valuable (Rahman & Bullock, 2002).

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Tools & techniques

Organizations may use various tools and techniques to pursue the TQM philosophy. Some of the most commonly used tools include Pareto analysis, flowcharting, cause and effect diagrams, statistical process control (SPC), and employee and customer surveys (Rahman & Bullock, 2002). On the other hand, the most commonly employed techniques include quality function deployment, failure mode effects analysis, and cost of quality, benchmarking, and design of experiments. The tools and techniques above play a critical role in enabling organizations to achieve operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.


Empowerment is different from job enrichment or delegation. Employee empowerment implies that an organization holds an employee responsible for completing the whole task (Thamizhmanii & Hasan, 2010). In this case, employee empowerment enables the employee to own the process, which makes him both responsible and accountable. Innovation usually succeeds when there is collaboration, and collaboration often occurs best when employees are empowered.

Review of an article on TQM by Soltani, Lai, Javadeen & Gholipourc

A review of the theory and practice of managing TQM by Soltani, Lai, Javadeen & Gholipourc (2008) is an enlightening article that explores the problem of defining quality, including the universal principles that uphold it as a management philosophy/concept. The article provides the reader with a comparative analysis that facilitates a better understanding of Total Quality Management (TQM). Therefore, organizations implementing TQM are likely to find it helpful in facilitating business success because it provides valuable information to handle various business challenges.

I see that the subject of quality management is significant in facilitating organizational change, especially with regard to the promotion of customer satisfaction. Quality management also results in increased productivity, adoption of effective quality controls, and statistical control techniques in organizations that have implemented the concept. Thus, organizations that have adopted QM are able to compete effectively because the concept offers effective ways of confronting the numerous challenges in business, thus improving their viability (Soltani, Lai, Javadeen & Gholipourc, 2008).

The article provides a detailed analysis of the various universal principles associated with the concept, which enables the reader to get a better understanding of the history of TQM, with a particular focus on its development over the years (Soltani, Lai, Javadeen & Gholipourc, 2008). The inclusion of views by different quality management scholars helps the reader to identify the different set of variables that are critical in facilitating business success. For example, the authors have covered some popular perspectives on the subject such as The Juran Trilogy, Deming’s 14 points, and Crosby’s 14 quality steps, which help to provide essential insights on how to facilitate organizational change.


Lama, S., Leea, V., Ooia K., & Linb, B. (2011). The relationship between TQM, learning orientation and market performance in service organizations: An empirical analysis. Total Quality Management, 22(12), 1277–1297.

Rahman, S., & Bullock, P. (2002). Relationships between soft TQM, hard TQM, and Organizational Performance. Working Paper ITS-WP-02-10.

Soltani, E., Lai, P., Javadeen, S. R. S., & Gholipourc, T. H. (2008). A review of the theory and practice of managing TQM: An integrative framework. Total Quality Management, 19(5), 461–479.

Thamizhmanii, S., & Hasan, S. (2010). A review on an employee empowerment in TQM practice. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 39(2), 204-210.


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