Types of Black Holes
Although we know a lot about black holes, there is still so much that we don’t know and that remains a mystery to us. What we do know is that it is a hole in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot escape from it. The gravity is so strong because so much matter is being condensed into one small space, and since light can’t escape this makes us unable to see a black hole, although scientists have made special telescopes to locate black holes. The telescopes also allow us to be able to study how stars close to black holes react as opposed to stars that aren’t near black holes.
There are three main types of black holes. This is determined by how they were formed and their size. The largest of the black holes are supermassive black holes, they are thought to be at the center of every single galaxy including ours. Although scientists aren’t exactly sure how they are formed it is thought that they were formed the same as the universe was. Some of them can have the equivalent mass to a billion stars.
The second type of black holes are Stellar black holes. They are formed when a large star collapses in on itself. After a supernova explosion if the core is greater than two or three solar masses, the pressure of the neurons is unable to withstand it collapsing and then creates a black hole. The last type of black hole is a miniature black hole are formed by the pressure of interstellar clouds and since they are so small at less than three solar masses they can’t form all on their own, needing to rely on outside pressure. Enormous amounts of pressure are needed to form them. There could even be miniature black holes scattered around our solar system.
Now i’m sure you’re wondering what would happen if you were to fall into a black hole. Well, if you were to have fallen into a smaller black hole the gravity changes so rapidly that you wouldn’t even really get that close to the perimeter of the black hole and you’d still be pulled apart. Since the amount of pressure is so much larger on your feet then on your head it would string and stretch you like a noodle.
If you were to fall into a large mass black hole then it would be a bit different. As you were falling you would not notice a time difference as you are experiencing it but from an outsider’s perspective time would look like it was slowing down. Since you’re in the presence of something with that much of a gravitational field the time will pass by much slower, A process called dilation. This increases the closer you get to the object. Either way you definitely wouldn’t make it back to tell the story. Another misconception along with what happens after you fall into a black hole, they do not suck. Most people imagine black holes as giant cosmic vacuum, although it does have a very strong gravitational force it doesn’t suck anything in.
In the heart of our galaxy is a supermassive black hole. Scientists think there is a black hole in the center of every galaxy, but never really had to the data to prove it. To be able to measure the effects of gravity near the black hole, they found whose orbit goes far into Sagittarius A*’s gravity every 16 years. Sagittarius A*’s (the black hole). When they were watching they saw three flares traveling around the black hole at two hundred and sixteen million miles per hour. The supermassive black hole in the center of the milky way is very necessary because let’s say it just randomly disappeared.
As the gravitational effects would travel for eight minutes since that’s how long it takes for light. For eight minutes nothing would feel different and everything would be the same, but after that eight minutes the earth would feel the tug from the black hole vanish. Since there is a mass-less center earth would keep going indefinitely in space until it would hit some other object or be pulled to a heavier planet. Although if let’s say the sun was replaced by a black hole, nothing of the earth orbit would change. All of the planets would stay in orbit the same way. Although everything on earth would die because the sun wouldn’t be there and the other planets would feel the effects of radiation and temperature that is now absent everything in the orbit would stay the same.
A black hole also has a structure as well. There are two main parts of a black hole, the singularity and the event horizon. The singularity is in the center of the black hole and is where all mass is. The event horizon is the boundary that marks where escape velocity is equal to the speed of light. The radius of the black hole is called the Schwarzschild radius. Once matter is inside the event horizon it will immediately fall into the center.
With such strong gravity in the black hole the matter is condensed into one tiny space with a lot of density, the singularity. Scientists are still actively researching what happens in this singularities, including developing a full theory to better understand black holes. It is also said that the singularity is suggested to destroy information lost inside the black hole. Stephen Hawking applied quantum theory to black hole spacetimes and showed that black holes can radiate particles which causes the black hole to evaporate overtime. Since it can evaporate this would mean that the information in the black hole would be lost forever.
Although, this is problematic because it violates the law of conservation of information which is that information is always preserved. In order to explain the violation of the law of information several theories have been introduced but none so far have given a satisfactory conclusion. Another interesting thing about the anatomy of black holes is that there are black holes called Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. They rotate and have ring singularities instead of the typical conventional singularities. Also an interesting thing is that only rotating black holes have an area around the black hole where photons (a particle representing a quantum of light) can remain in stable orbit, which is called the ergosphere.
Something that can happen to black holes like any other planet, star or solar system is that they can collide. A mutual gravitational pull will force the two together. One they collide they will do a lot of things, the first one being is that it will emit gravitational waves which is a fluctuation in the gravitational field, although they are usually too small to detect. Then they will start to orbit each other while still emitting the waves they will spiral closer and closer.
Overtime they would both collide to make an even bigger supermassive black hole. However sometimes when the black holes do not have the same mass or rotation rate as each other some of the gravitational waves will be stronger in some places giving the black hole a possible jolt to the equivalent of 100 million supernovae exploding at the same time. Sometimes resulting in one of the black holes literally being ejected into space, virtually destroying everything in its path.
While two black holes get very close to each other, these spheres will merge to form one large sphere. They will wobble together for a while until it settles down, which is called a “ring down.” After the gravitational waves are emitted it allows us to test whether we correctly understand how space time bends in such extreme circumstances. If the right conditions are met a normal two stars orbit each other much like earth orbits the sun will turn into black holes once all their fuel has burnt out and the remaining matter collapses. They will continue to orbit each other until they become very close and collide with each other, after the gravitational waves are emitted their orbit will shrink.