1. Glucose is: A. the hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior. B. the neurotransmitter that promotes satiation and produces feelings of fullness as you eat. C. also called the “hunger hormone” because its presence in the lining of the stomach strongly stimulates appetite. *D. also called blood sugar and is the primary source of energy in your body.
2. Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of Maslow’s theory of motivation?A. Maslow’s initial studies on self-actualization were based on limited samples and often relied on the life stories of acquaintances, and biographies and autobiographies of historical figures he selected. B. The concept of self-actualization is vague and almost impossible to define in such a way that it could be empirically measured or tested. C. Despite the claim that that self-actualization is an inborn motivational goal, most people do not experience or achieve self-actualization. * D. Because of Maslow’s influence, psychology was encouraged to focus on the motivation and development of psychologically healthy people.
3. Psychologists define the term _____ as a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. A. motivation *B. emotion C. self-efficacy D. anthropomorphism
4. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of sleep stages during the first 90 minutes of sleep? * A. stage 1 NREM, stage 2 NREM, stage 3 NREM, stage 4 NREM, REM sleep B. REM sleep, stage 4 NREM, stage 3 NREM, stage 2 NREM, stage 1 NREM C. stage 1 REM, stage 2 REM, stage 3 REM, stage 4 REM, NREM D. wakefulness, drowsiness, dreaming, deep sleep, paradoxical sleep
5. Sleep restriction studies have shown that: A. research participants adapted to the four-hour-per-night sleep schedule by the end of the first week and showed no cognitive or physical impairments over the course of the experiments. B. there were some beneficial effects in terms of memory consolidation, reaction time, and immune system functioning. * C. mmune system functioning, concentration, vigilance, reaction time, memory skills, and ability to gauge risk were all diminished. D. there is no evidence to support the notion that REM and NREM sleep deprivation result in REM and NREM rebound effects.
6. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors are _______ that tend to occur in _______. *A. parasomnias; stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep B. parasomnias; REM sleep C. dyssomnias; stages 1 and 2 NREM sleep D. dyssomnias; REM sleep
7. Which of the following is an example of a parasomnia? A. insomnia B. narcolepsy C. obstructive sleep apnea *D. leep-related eating disorder (SRED)
8. Scientists found that diminished levels of a special class of neurotransmitter called hypocretins, which are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, have been implicated in a sleep disorder called _______. * A. narcolepsy B. obstructive sleep apnea C. sexsomnia D. somnambulism
9. Heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol, and nicotine are all addictive drugs that increase levels of which neurotransmitter in the brain? A. serotonin B. melatonin C. norepinephrine * D. dopamine
10. Caffeine: * A. is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. B. gets its stimulant effect by promoting the release of adenosine in the brian’s prefrontal cortex. C. gets its stimulant effect by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. D. is the most widely used non-physically addictive drug in the world.
11. Which of the following is a derivative of opium? A. mescaline B. Oxycontin C. psilocybin * D. codeine
12. According to _____ theories of motivation, behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs. A. incentive * B. drive C. humanistic D. instinct
13. According to the _____ theory of emotion, your subjective emotional experience is the direct result of physical changes in your body. *A. James-Lange B. cognitive-appraisal C. self-determination D. Schachter-Singer two-factor
14. Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise comprise the list that Paul Ekman calls: A. the facial code. B. facial movements. C. the primary code. * D. primary affects.
15. When people mask an emotion: A. it is impossible to detect their true emotion. *B. the true emotion flashes on their face before they compose their face. C. the true emotion can be read in their eyes. D. their facial muscles always twitch.
16. How do Psychoactive drugs work? -once in our bloodstream, psychoactive drugs influence our behavior by altering the functioning of the central nervous system in some way.
17. What is anger? What features does anger share with other emotions? – Anger is “an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage,” Like other emotions, it is accompanied by physiological and biological changes; when you get angry, your heart rate and blood pressure go up, as do the levels of your energy hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.
18. Define dyssomnia- A general term used to describe any sleeping condition where a person has trouble either getting to sleep or staying asleep.
19. Define parasomnia- A category of sleep disorders in which abnormal events occur during sleep, such as sleepwalking or talking; due to inappropriately timed activation of physiological systems.
20. Define hypnosis- An artificially induced trance state resembling sleep, characterized by heightened susceptibility to suggestion.
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