In 1890, William James defined psychology as â€œthe science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.â€ Hebb said that phenomenology was a â€œdead duck.â€ Has the definition changed since then? How do you define psychology â€” and why do you define it that way? (Hebb Article)
Answer each of the 5 questions below with brief essays between 400 and 500 words in length for each essay. Identify by number the question you are answering. Use critical thinking in providing your answers and provide historical context for each of your answers.
1. In 1890, William James defined psychology as â€œthe science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.â€Â Â Hebb said that phenomenology was a â€œdead duck.â€ Additionally, Has the definition changed since then?Â Also, How do you define psychology â€” and why do you define it that way? (Hebb Article)
2. Is there value in studying the behavior of animals? Or are animals so significantly different from humans and it would be a wasted effort to study their behavior? Additionally, trace the historical progression of thought on this issue from Descartes to Beach to current thinking. (Beach Article)
3. It is common to think of oneself as a â€œghost in the machineâ€ but there are many reasons to reject this as a model of consciousness.Â Also, cite arguments against the model that point to interactions between the body and the mind. Further, do you agree with the conclusion that the model is only a â€œseductive ideaâ€? (Churchland article)
4. Lashley failed to identify cells that provide a physical representation of memory in the brain and yet he is credited with advancing our understanding of learning and memory. Also, what research strategies did he use and what did he find? Additionally, Why is this important? (Engram Heroes Article)
5. Twin studies provide insight into the genetic contribution to behavior. Also, provide a brief summary of the results of these studies. Do evolutionary factors control our behavior as well as our physical attributes? Have changes in our environment and the way we live as humans favoured specific behaviors? (Genes by Bouchard Article)
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